Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> en-US (Iraqi Journal of Science) (SAAD AL-MOMEN) Thu, 28 May 2020 18:34:36 -0500 OJS 60 Theoretical Investigation on Reaction Pathway, Biological Activity, Toxicity and NLO Properties of Diclofenac Drug and Its Ionic Carriers <p>The present study included the use of the approximate semi-experimental method, the time-independent density function theory (unrestricted), the time-dependent density function theory, and Hartree-Fock method to calculate the reaction pathway of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with its common ionic carriers (sodium and potassium). The basis sets used were STO-3G, 3-21G, 6-31G, and 6-311G. The drug was studied with two new proposed carrier ions (lithium and calcium) which were compared with common carriers. The calculations included the optimized geometrical structure and some physical properties such as standard heat of formation, dipole moment, total energies, and analytical spectra of IR, UV-VIS and <sup>1</sup>H NMR. The biological and toxicological activities and the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also studied theoretically for the drug and for its proposed and common carriers. All calculations were performed using Gaussian-09 program. The results of the proposed carriers were compared with the common carriers in terms of activation energies, transition states, and products. This study is considered as a step to develop diclofenac prodrugs and find new carriers for diclofenac. The proposed lithium showed a good result and a potential for use as a drug carrier. The results also showed the convergence of the values of the common carriers (Na, K) and those of the proposed carrier (Ca), with their preference over it.</p> Mustafa M. Kadhim, Rehab M. Kubba Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:19:28 -0500 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Three Genera of the Family Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera) from Ava Sheen Branch/ Greater Zab Tributary, North of Iraq <p>The aquatic Heptageniidae family of Ava-sheen branch (Greater Zab Tributary) in Duhok Governorate/ Iraq was studied. Samples were collected using Surber stream sampler to study their diagnostic morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic profile using a nuclear gene 16s ribosomal RNA. The morphological and molecular identification supported that the three species, <em>Epeorus longimanus</em>, <em>Heptagenia elegantula</em> and <em>Ephemerella cornutus</em> belong to Heptageniidae family, while the molecular results also confirmed the monophyletic origin of these three genera.</p> Shelan Mustafa Khudhur, Yahya Ahmed Shekha Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:25:54 -0500 Bioremediation of Petroleum Polluted Soils using Consortium Bacteria <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>&nbsp;This study was carried out to isolate opportunistic hydrocarbons oil-degrading bacteria and develop a consortium or a mixture of bacteria with high biodegradation capabilities which can be used in biological treatment units of the contaminated water before release. The biological processes in general are environmentally friendly and cost effective, as they are easy to design and apply; as such they are more appropriate to the public.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The location of the study was in Al-Dora refinery sludge holes area. The samples were collected for three seasons (winter, spring and summer) each consisted of three months.&nbsp; The sludge samples were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. Temperature values of the sludge were at maximum in summer season, reaching 32˚C, whereas they were at minimum in winter (24 ˚C). The values of sludge pH were at maximum in summer (9.70) and minimum in winter (9.20). Turbidity levels were 382 NTU in spring and 353 NUT in winter. Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was at maximum in summer (760) and (690 mg/l) in winter. The maximum dissolved oxygen (DO) value of 5.20 mg/l was recorded in winter, while the minimum was 3.80 mg/l recorded in summer. The maximum electrical conductivity (EC) was 17130 μs/cm recorded in summer, while the minimum was 16150 μs/cm recorded in winter. The maximum total dissolved solids (TDS) values were 10335 mg/l recorded in summer, while the minimum (10015 mg/l) was recorded in winter. The maximum total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) value (431 mg/l) was recorded in summer, while the minimum (367 mg/l) was recorded in spring. Finally, the maximum salinity value (9.90%) was recorded in spring, while the minimum (9.30%) was recorded in winter. Also, hydrocarbon compounds in sludge samples were measured using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and the result showed that they were composed of 31 hydrocarbon compounds.In the present work, nineteen sludge degrading bacterial strains were isolated from the soil near Al-Dora refinery hole by primary and secondary screenings using a modified mineral salt medium supplemented with 1% (v/v) sludge as a carbon source. The most efficient two sludge degraded isolates identified by VITIK 2 compact were Kocuria<em> rosea </em>and<em> Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em>. The tow isolates and there mixture showed best growth at 30°C for 12 days, as shown by the measurement of the optical density of the liquid culture and the final oil concentration by spectrophotometer.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The bacterial isolates in liquid media with 2% (v/v) sludge showed best growth and the maximum biodegradation percentage after 12-day incubation period, as determined by gas chromatographic (GC). The degradation values were 68.9, 93.8 and 95.5% for <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Kocuria rosea</em> and the mixture of the tow isolates, respectively. In optimum conditions of pH 7, 40°C, 12 days incubation, the mixed bacterial consortium showed maximum sludge degradation.</p> Dina Hasan Nafal, Hind Suhail Abdulhay Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:32:09 -0500 Monitoring of the Immune Response Activity in Iraqi Patients Infected with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by IFN-γ and MIG Evaluation During Different Stages of Infection <p>Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most prevalent cutaneous parasitic protozoan infections in Iraq; characterized by a chronic infection and granulomatous disease that invades the skin. Type 1 immune was predominates in CL patients with exacerbated production of pro-inflammatory cytokine, therefore this study aimed to evaluate serum level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and monokine induce by interferon gamma (MIG/CXCl9) as a useful markers of disease development in patients during different stage of infection (&lt;1 month .. early , 1-6 month.. chronic and &gt;6 months.. late). The result showed that there was an early effort to eliminate the parasite proliferation which illustrated by a high significant increase of both IFN-γ and MIG during the early stage of infection, but this response was down-regulated during the chronic stage of infection, which observed by low levels of both studied cytokine and monokine, nevertheless this down-regulation was transient where the levels to increase returns during the late stage of infection. The evaluation of IFN-γ and MIG considered as a biological markers of disease activity in each stage of infection.</p> Reem Aladdin Jameel, B. N. Al-Qadhi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:36:34 -0500 Evaluation of Serum Clusterin Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Men with and without Cardiovascular Disease <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this study was to evaluate serum levels of clusterin (CLU) in type 2 diabetics with and without cardiovascular disease and to explore possible correlations with insulin resistance and related progression of cardiovascular disease in Iraqi men.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Sixty-three T2DM patients, including forty-two with cardiovascular disease (CVD), were divided into three subgroups; twenty-one with myocardial infraction (MI), twenty-one with other CVD, and twenty-one without any cardiac complication. In addition, a group of twenty-one men served as healthy controls (HCs) for comparison purposes. The four groups were analyzed for parameters that included fasting serum glucose (FSG), lipid profile, fasting serum insulin (FSI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiac Troponin-I (cTn-I), &nbsp;CK-MB, and some other biochemical variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results showed that the serum CLU levels were higher in T2DM with MI than &nbsp;the other groups of patients, while the levels were significantly elevated in the entire T2DM group as compared to the control group. Serum levels of CLU showed significantly positive correlations with cTn-I and CK-MB (r= 0.658 p &lt; 0.01and r = 0.575, p &lt; 0.01 , respectively), whereas the correlation with HDL-C was negative. However, the other parameters exhibited weak correlations with serum CLU levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> CLU participates in the event of cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in Iraqi males with T2DM and may be used as predictor for CVD development in T2DM patients.</p> Safa S. Fayez, Rashied. M. Rashied, Shakir F.T. Al-Alaaraji Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:41:53 -0500 Evaluation of Thyroid Hormones and Some Biochemical Variables in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a permanent loss of kidney function which is diagnosed when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is under 60 ml\min\1.73m2 for more than three months. The present study was conducted at Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Center in the Medical City in Baghdad from October 2018 to April 2019. Sixty CKD patients with an age ranged of 40 to 65 years and 25 healthy subjects were involved in this study. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of kidney function parameters and thyroid hormones. The levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid showed highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) increases in CKD patient in comparison with the control group, while the values of GFR and creatinine clearance showed highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) decreases. The results of thyroid hormones showed highly significant (p &lt; 0.01) decreases in the levels of T3 and T4 along with a highly significant (p &lt; 0.01) increase in the level of TSH in the patients.</p> Sama S. Salih, Jabbar H. Yenzeel , Ali j. Alsaady Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:46:40 -0500 The Association Between IL-2 Gene (RS2069763 (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Iraqi Patients <p>This research attempts to find the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of <em>IL<sub>2+166</sub></em> gene (rs2069763) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a sample of Iraqi patients. A total of 44 patients and 55 apparently healthy volunteers were genotyped for the SNP using polymerase chain reaction test. Three genotypes (GG, GT, and TT) corresponding to two alleles (G and T) were found to have SNP. Both study groups’ genotypes had a good agreement for the analysis of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The results revealed increased frequencies between the observed and expected GG and TT genotypes and <em>IL2<sub>+166</sub></em> SNP T allele in T2DM&nbsp; patients (40.9 vs. 40.0 %; OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.47 - 2.31), whereas the values in the control group were 11.4 vs. 9.1 %; OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 0.35 - 4.68. Nevertheless, both variations did not reach a significant level. In the Iraqi population, the <em>IL2<sub>+166</sub></em> SNP was not associated with T2DM and, therefore, no association with its etiopathogensis was found.</p> Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:50:37 -0500 Assessment of Genotoxicity of Citrobacter freundii Bacteriocin on Bone Marrow Cells in Albino Mice <p>Genotoxic effects of crude bacteriocin extracted from <em>Citrobacter freundii</em> were detected on albino mice bone marrow cells<em> in vivo</em>, using micronucleus (MN) and comet assay. The mice were administered intraperitoneally with 37.5, 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg of the extract for 24 hours. <em>C. freundii</em> was isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTI). The bacteriocin producing isolates were determined using cup assayand the most efficient bacteriocin producers were selected. Bacteriocin was extracted from the efficient isolates via the induction with Mitomycin-C (2 mg/ml). Bacteriocin activity (320 U/ml) was determined by well diffusion method, while the protein concentration (2900µg/ml) was estimated by Lowery method. The results showed an acute dose-dependent toxic effect of the crude bacteriocin ; The higher doses (150 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the micronuclei frequency in the bone marrow cells (4.62 and 5.37%, respectively (. Furthermore, DNA damage&nbsp;&nbsp; increased significantly (P≤0.05) and proportionally to higher bacteriocin doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg), as demonstrated by increased values of&nbsp; tail length&nbsp; (145.18, 267.73 and 295.08 %,( %DNA in tail (8.05, 13.87 and 14.31 %(, and olive tail moment (13.25, 22.72 and 25.85 % , respectively.</p> Rasha Noori Hammad, Hind Hussein Obaid Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:55:02 -0500 Impact of EBV on Multiple in a Sample of Iraqi Females: Immunological and Molecular Study <p>This study was designed to highlight the role of Epstein Barr viruses (EBV) as a possible causative effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) through testing the viral load along with both biochemical and immunological parameters in female MS patients. We also aimed at finding the effects of different types of treatment line on the various study aspects. The results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed first an increased level of EBV EBNA1IgG IL-17A (96.13±27.60 pg/ml) in sera of female MS patients (0.05±0.01 U/ml, n=50) compared with the control group (n=40). We confirmed this result using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which also showed a significantly higher EBV load in MS patients (22.61±12.72 copies/ml) as compared to the control. This was associated with an increased level of&nbsp; IL-17A (96.13±27.60 pg/ml) in the patients, while levels of both melatonin hormone (0.63±0.19 pg/ml) and vitamin D3 (29.90±12.41 ng/ml) showed a significant decrease as compared to the normal values of the control group. Analysis of the relation between each of the studied parameters with the level of disability in the patients, as reflected by the expanded disability status score (EDSS), revealed no significant differences between the two categories of&nbsp; EDSS ˂3 and ≥3 patients in terms of EBV EBNA1IgG levels, whereas they were slightly different in terms of&nbsp; IL-17A and vitamin D3 (p &lt;0.001). With respect to differences between the treatment lines, the results from the showed analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed no significant differences in all the tested parameters between patients treated with the first line (Rebif, Avonex, Betaferon) and second-line (Gilenya, Tysabri). However, the only significant difference in comparison to the control group was found in levels of IL-17.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It could be concluded that EBV has a crucial role in the initiation and targeting MS disease, leading to increasing levels of IL-17A, and decrease serum levels of melatonin hormone for female patients.</p> Rusul Mohammed Abd Al Kareem, Wisal Salman Abd Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 15:59:18 -0500 Genetic Algorithm-Based Anisotropic Diffusion Filter and Clustering Algorithms for Thyroid Tumor Detection <p>Medical imaging is a technique that has been used for diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases. Therefore it has become necessary to conduct a good image processing to extract the finest desired result and information. In this study, genetic algorithm (GA)-based clustering technique (K-means and Fuzzy C Means (FCM)) were used to segment thyroid Computed Tomography (CT) images to an extraction thyroid tumor. Traditional GA, K-means and FCM algorithms were applied separately on the original images and on the enhanced image with Anisotropic Diffusion Filter (ADF). The resulting cluster centers from K-means and FCM were used as the initial population in GA for the implementation of GAK-Mean and GAFCM. Jaccard index was used to study resemblance, dissimilarity, distance between two sets of images, and effect of ADF on enhancing the CT images. The results showed that ADF increases the segmentation accuracy, where the value of Jaccard index of similarity between the ground truth image and segmented image was increased for all segmentation algorithms, in particular for FCM&nbsp; and GAFCM where&nbsp; similarity percent was up to 88%.</p> W. A. Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:02:13 -0500 External Switching Dynamics of Optical Bistability System Simulation <p>In this work, the external switching dynamics of a Fabry-Perot etalon are studied via optical bistability system simulation. The simulated set-up of this investigation consists of two laser beams; the first beam is continuous (CW) which is considered as a biasing beam and capable of holding the bistable system for a certain range, which we are interested in, from a point that is very close self-switching to a point where the switching is unachievable. The second beam is modulated by passing the first beam through an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) to produce pulses with a minimum rise time and is used as an external source (coherent switching). In this work, we obtained the optical bistable loops by applying absorption coefficient (α) = 20cm<sup>-1</sup>, e sample etalon thickness (D) = 110μm, forward mirror reflectivity (R<sub>f</sub>) = 0.6, and backward mirror reflectivity (R<sub>b</sub>) = 0.95. The steady state characteristic of an initial detuning of the cavity (φ<sub>0</sub>) = 0.8 was studied at the conditions of no external input pulse intensity (M<sub>(t)</sub> = 0) and switching that takes place at I<sub>s(ON)</sub>= 0.57mW and I<sub>s(OFF)</sub> = 0.4mW.</p> Ali Hassan Khidhir Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:27:42 -0500 Designing A Zener Diode Using Ag2O(1-X)Zno(X)/Psi Structures Deposited by Laser Induced Plasma Technique <p>In this paper Zener diode was designed by mixing three mixing ratios of Ag<sub>2</sub>O<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO<sub>(x)</sub>, where <em>x</em> is 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1, that are deposited on a p-type porous silicon using laser induced plasma technique at room temperature (RT). The results of the Zener diode showed a decrease in knee and Zener voltage when the mixing ratio of Ag<sub>2</sub>O<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO<sub>(x)</sub> structure was increased. Nanofilms of 200nm thickness were prepared from pure ZnO and Ag<sub>2</sub>O as well as Ag<sub>2</sub>O<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO<sub>(x)</sub> with three maxing ratios and deposited on glass slides at RT to analyze the structure and optical properties. The structures of Ag<sub>2</sub>O and Ag<sub>2</sub>O<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO<sub>(x)</sub> showed high absorbance in the visible region with redshift in spectra when the mixing ratio was increased, while ZnO had a high absorbance&nbsp; in the ultraviolet region. It is concluded that when the value of x increases the energy gap value for the Ag<sub>2</sub>O<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO<sub>(x)</sub> structure decreases.</p> Raied K. Jamal, Falah Hassen Ali, Mohammed M. Hameed, Kadhim Abdulwahid Aadim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:33:25 -0500 Comparison between Horizontal and Vertical OFETs by Using Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an Active Semiconductor Layer <p>In this paper, a comparison between horizontal and vertical OFET of Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an active semiconductor layer (p-type) was studied by using two different gate insulators (ZrO<sub>2 </sub>and PVA). The electrical performance output (I<sub>d</sub>-V<sub>d</sub>) and transfer (I<sub>d</sub>-V<sub>g</sub>) characteristics were investigated using the gradual-channel approximation model. The device shows a typical output curve of a field-effect transistor (FET). The analysis of electrical characterization was performed in order to investigate the source-drain voltage (V<sub>d</sub>) dependent current and the effects of gate dielectric on the electrical performance of the OFET. This work also considered the effects of the capacitance semiconductor on the performance OFETs. The values of current, as calculated using MATLAB simulation, exhibited an increase with increasing source-drain voltage. &nbsp;Also, the organic transistor modeling software was used to evaluate the transconductance calculated. The best results for the vertical OFET were achieved using the gate insulators of ZrO<sub>2</sub>.</p> Bushra H. Mohammed, Estabraq T. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:39:49 -0500 An Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Rate of Penetration in AL- Khasib Formation – Ahdeb Oil Field <p>The main objective of this study is to develop a rate of penetration (ROP) model for Khasib formation in Ahdab oil field and determine the drilling parameters controlling the prediction of ROP values by using artificial neural network (ANN).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; An Interactive Petrophysical software was used to convert the raw dataset of transit time (LAS Readings) from parts of meter-to-meter reading with depth. The IBM SPSS statistics software version 22 was used to create an interconnection between the drilling variables and the rate of penetration, detection of outliers of input parameters, and regression modeling. While a JMP Version 11 software from SAS Institute Inc. was used for artificial neural modeling.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The proposed artificial neural network method depends on obtaining the input data from drilling mud logging data and wireline logging data. The data then analyzes it to create an interconnection between the drilling variables and the rate of penetration.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The proposed ANN model consists of an input layer, hidden layer and outputs layer, while it applies the tangent function (TanH) as a learning and training algorithm in the hidden layer. Finally, the predicted values of ROP are compared with the measured values. The proposed ANN model is more efficient than the multiple regression analysis in predicting ROP. The obtained coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) values using the ANN technique are 0.93 and 0.91 for training and validation sets, respectively. This study presents a new model for predicting ROP values in comparison with other conventional drilling measurements.</p> Zaher JabbarAttwan AL Zirej, Hassan Abdul Hadi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:43:52 -0500 Palynofacies and Source Rocks Evaluation for Selected Samples of Subba Oil Field, Southern Iraq <p>This study includes a palynological and organic geochemical evaluation of Nahr Umr, Zubair, and Yamama Formations in the Subba field, Southern Iraq, represented by three wells (Su-14, Su-9 and Su-8). The determination of quantity organic matter showed that the rocks of Nahr Umr Formation had a total organic carbon of 4.76%, indicating very good production of hydrocarbons where type (II) kerogen was dominant, but the rocks were thermally immature. Zubair Formation had a total organic carbon of 1.91% to 2.26%, indicating good to very good production of hydrocarbons where kerogen of types (I) and (II/III) were dominant, with low thermal maturity. Yamama Formation showed a total organic carbon of 1.68%, revealing good production of hydrocarbons where type (I) kerogen was dominant, with low thermal maturity. Facies analysis of Nahr Umr, Zubair and Yamama Formations demonstrated the presence of two facies, namely the distal dysoxic-Oxic shelf and the distal suboxic-Anoxic basin. It is clear that the environment of rock deposition is a marine environment, which is far from the coast.</p> Hussein A. Chafeet, Nawfal A. Dahham, Amna M. Handhal Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:49:22 -0500 Strong and Weak Forms of μ-Kc-Spaces <p>In this paper, we provide some types of - -spaces, namely, - ( )- (respectively, - ( )- , - ( )- and - ( )-) spaces for minimal structure spaces which are denoted by ( -spaces). Some properties and examples are given.<br>The relationships between a number of types of - -spaces and the other existing types of weaker and stronger forms of -spaces are investigated. Finally, new types of open (respectively, closed) functions of -spaces are introduced and some of their properties are studied.</p> Nadia A. Nadhim, Haider J. Ali, Rasha N. Majeed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 16:55:42 -0500 Invertible Operators on Soft Normed Spaces <p>Despite ample research on soft linear spaces, there are many other concepts that can be studied. We introduced in this paper several new concepts related to the soft operators, such as the invertible operator.&nbsp; We investigated some properties of this kind of operators and defined the spectrum of soft linear operator along with a number of concepts related with this definition; the concepts of eigenvalue, eigenvector, eigenspace are defined. Finally the spectrum of the soft linear operator was divided into three disjoint parts.</p> Sabah Aboud, Buthaina Abdul Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:03:00 -0500 Nano spaces via Ἷ-semi-g-Closed Set <p>In this research and by using the concept of &nbsp; , a new set of near &nbsp;set which is&nbsp;nano-Ἷ-semi-g-closed set was defined. Some properties and examples with illustrative table and an applied example were presented.</p> Maher Abdul Jalil, Ahmed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:06:44 -0500 Semiprime RΓ-Submodules of Multiplication RΓ-Modules <p>Let <em>R</em> be a <em>Γ</em>-ring and <em>G</em> be an R<sub>Γ</sub>-module. A proper R<sub>Γ</sub>-submodule <em>S</em> of <em>G</em> is said to be semiprime R<sub>Γ</sub>-submodule if for any ideal <em>I</em> of a<em> Γ-</em>ring <em>R</em> and for any <em>R<sub>Γ</sub></em>-submodule <em>A</em> of <em>G</em> such that or which implies that . The purpose of this paper is to introduce interesting results of semiprime R<sub>Γ</sub>-submodule of R<sub>Γ</sub>-module which represents a generalization of semiprime submodules.</p> Ali Abd Alhussein Zyarah, Nuhad Salim Al-Mothafar Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:13:50 -0500 Comments on Copula Functions and Their Relationship to Probability Density Functions <p>Copulas are very efficient functions in the field of statistics and specially in statistical inference. They are fundamental tools in the study of dependence structures and deriving their properties. These reasons motivated us to examine and show&nbsp; various types of copula functions and their families. Also, we separately explain each method that is used to construct each copula in detail with different examples. There are various outcomes that show the copulas and their densities with respect to the joint distribution functions. The aim is to make copulas available to new researchers and readers who are interested in the modern phenomenon of statistical inferences.</p> Ahmed AL-Adilee, Ola Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:17:36 -0500 Application of the Two Rowed Weyl Module in the Case of Partitions (7,7) and (7, 7) / (1, 0) <p>The purpose of this paper is to study the application of Weyl module’s resolution in the case of two rows which will be specified in the partitions (7, 7) and (7, 7) / (1, 0), using the homological Weyl (i.e. the contracting homotopy and place polarization).</p> Nubras Yasir Khudair, Haytham Razooki Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:30:49 -0500 Some Geometric Properties for an Extended Class Involving Holomorphic Functions Defined by Fractional Calculus <p>The main objective of" this paper is to study a subclass of holomrphic and univalent functions with negative coefficients in the open unit disk U= defined by Hadamard Product. We obtain coefficients estimates, distortion theorem , fractional derivatives, fractional integrals, and some results.</p> Sattar Kamil Hussein, Kassim Abdulhameed Jassim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:39:20 -0500 A Prey-Predator Model with Michael Mentence Type of Predator Harvesting and Infectious Disease in Prey <p>A prey-predator model with Michael Mentence type of predator harvesting and infectious disease in prey is studied. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of the model are investigated. The dynamical behavior of the system is studied locally as well as globally. The persistence conditions of the system are established. Local bifurcation near each of the equilibrium points is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show our obtained analytical results.</p> Hiba Abdullah Ibrahim, Raid Kamel Naji Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:45:24 -0500 Fuzzy Maximal Sub-Modules <p>In this paper, we introduce and study the notions of fuzzy quotient module, fuzzy (simple, semisimple) module and fuzzy maximal submodule.&nbsp;Also, we give many basic properties about these notions.</p> Maysoun A. Hamel, Hatam Y. Khalaf Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 17:51:37 -0500 Dynamical Analysis Within-Host and Between-Host for HIV\AIDS with the Application of Optimal Control Strategy <p>The aims of this paper is investigating the spread of AIDS both within-host, through the contact between healthy cells with free virus inside the body, and between-host, through sexual contact among individuals and external sources of infectious. The outbreak of AIDS is described by a mathematical model consisting of two stages. The first stage describes the within-host spread of AIDS and is represented by the first three equations. While the second stage describes the between-host spread of AIDS and represented by the last four equations. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of the model are discussed and all possible equilibrium points are determined. The local asymptotic stability (LAS) of the model is studied, while suitable Lyapunov functions are used to investigate the global asymptotic stability (GAS) of the model. Optimal control strategy is used to control the outbreak of AIDS. Finally, a numerical simulation is carried out to confirm the analytical results and understand the effects of varying the parameters on the spread of disease.</p> Ahmed Ali Mohsen, Raid Kamel Naji Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:01:26 -0500 Development of an Attendance System Based on Cloud / Fog Computing with Data Recovery Capability <p>Given the high importance of attendance for university students, upon which the possibility of keeping or losing their places in the course is based, it is essential to replace the inefficient manual method of attendance recording with a more efficient one.&nbsp; To handle this problem, technology must be introduced into this process. This paper aims to propose an automatic attendance system based on passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), fog, and cloud computing technologies (AASCF). The system has three sides. The first one, which is the Client-side; works on collecting the attendance data then sending a copy from it. The second side, which is the Server-side, works on calculating an absence ratio of all the students during the course. The third side is the Fog-server. Data sent by the client-side reaches to the Fog-server which, in turn, sends data to the cloud at the end of the of working time at the university. This paper also reviews the state-of-the-art automatic attendance systems and shows the merits and demerits for each approach by providing a checklist comparison. Unlike the previous works, the proposed system protects data from wasting and ensures its arrival to the cloud even&nbsp; in cases of connection losing or device crashing, which is the contribution of this paper.</p> Mohammed I. Younis, Manal F. Younis, Marwa M. Abed, Abdulrahman A. Alserawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:06:05 -0500 Human Action Recognition Based on Bag-of-Words <p>Human action recognition has gained popularity because of its wide applicability, such as in patient monitoring systems, surveillance systems, and a wide diversity of systems that contain interactions between people and electrical devices, including human computer interfaces. The proposed method includes sequential stages of object segmentation, feature extraction, action detection and then action recognition. Effective results of human actions using different features of unconstrained videos was a challenging task due to camera motion, cluttered background, occlusions, complexity of human movements, and variety of same actions performed by distinct subjects. Thus, the proposed method overcomes such problems by using the fusion of features concept for the development of a powerful human action descriptor. This descriptor is modified to create a visual word vocabulary (or codebook) which yields a Bag-of-Words representation. The True Positive Rate (TPR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) measures gave a true indication about the proposed HAR system. The computed Accuracy (A<sub>r</sub>) and the Error (misclassification) Rate (E<sub>r</sub>) reveal the effectiveness of the system with the used dataset.</p> Riyadh Sahib Abdul Ameer, Mohammed Al-Taei Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:10:21 -0500 The Use of HSV Color Model for Subtle Ear Region Extraction <p>Identifying people by their ear has recently received import attention in the literature. The accurate segmentation of the ear region is vital in order to make successful person identification decisions. This paper presents an effective approach for ear region segmentation from color ear images. Firstly, the RGB color model was converted to the HSV color model. Secondly, thresholding was utilized to segment the ear region. Finally, the morphological operations were applied to remove small islands and fill the gaps. The proposed method was tested on a database which consisted of 105 ear images taken from the right sides of 105 subjects. The experimental results of the proposed approach on a variety of ear images revealed that this approach is efficient in segmenting ear images under various environments and it gave a detection rate of 98.61% for ear segmentation.</p> Saba A. Tuama, Jamila H. Saud Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:20:52 -0500 Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Classification: a Survey <p>In this review paper, several studies and researches were surveyed for assisting future researchers to identify available techniques in the field of classification of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. SAR images are becoming increasingly important in a variety of remote sensing applications due to the ability of SAR sensors to operate in all types of weather conditions, including day and night remote sensing for long ranges and coverage areas. Its properties of vast planning, search, rescue, mine detection, and target identification make it very attractive for surveillance and observation missions of Earth resources.&nbsp; With the increasing popularity and availability of these images, the need for machines has emerged to enhance the ability to identify and interpret these images effectively. This is due to the fact that SAR image processing requires the formation of an image from the measured radar scatter returns, followed by a treatment to discover and define the image's composition. After reviewing several previous studies that succeeded in achieving a classification of SAR images for specific goals, it became obvious that they could be generalized to all types of SAR images. The most prominent use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) was successful in extracting features from the images and training the neural network to analyze and classify them into classes according to these features. The dataset used in this model was obtained from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database, which consists of a set of SAR images of military vehicles, for which the application of the CNN approach achieved a final accuracy of 97.91% on ten different classes.</p> Aseel Sami, Matheel E. Abdulmunem Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:26:55 -0500 Studying the Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen Mass (MHI, MH2) Properties of the Extragalactic Spectra <p>The purpose of this study is to deal with dust and interstellar molecular and atomic gas owing to obtaining a proportion of cold gas to dust and to understand the characteristics of the molecular gas in extragalactic data selected from the Herschel SPIRE/ FTS archive. The physical properties of a sample of 65 extragalactic spectra characterized by the activity of star formation were discussed in this work. Statistical analyses, using STATISTICA program, were made for the content of cold gas (MHI, MH<sub>2</sub>), dust mass (M<sub>dust</sub>), cold temperature of dust (T<sub>d</sub>) and luminosities in Far-infrared to CO line radiations, while coefficients of partial correlation within those characteristics were established. The results showed that the molecular hydrogen mass (MH<sub>2</sub>) is strongly correlated with the HI or the total gas mass corresponding to the Far-infrared emission (L<sub>FIR</sub>) resulting from dust in the galaxies molecular clouds. The results also indicated that these kinds of galaxies have large molecular mass as well as high star formation efficiency per unit mass.</p> M. N. Al Najm Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Thu, 28 May 2020 18:31:52 -0500