Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> en-US (Iraqi Journal of Science) (SAAD AL-MOMEN) Wed, 29 Jul 2020 18:39:18 -0500 OJS 60 Charge Transfer Spectrophotometric Determination of Metronidazole in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Normal and Reverse Flow Injection Analysis Coupled with Solid-Phase Reactor Containing Immobilized FePO4 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Two rapid, simpleand sensitive flow injection methods were developed for the estimation of metronidazole (MRZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on charge transfer reaction between metol (N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate) as a π-acceptorand reduced MRZ as an n-donor to produce a blue colored chargetransfer complex. Method A depends on the reaction of reduced MRZ with metol (MT) in the presence of NaIO<sub>4</sub> using two lines manifold to form blue colored product exhibiting absorption maxima at 700 nm.While method B depends on charge transfer reaction of reduced MRZ with MT in presence of a solid phase reactorcontainingfixedFePO<sub>4</sub> on cellulose acetateusing reverse flow injection manifold to form a blue colored productwhich was measured spectrophotometrically at690 nm.Various experimental parameters for both methods were studied. Beer's law was obeyed in the ranges of2.5-200 and 2.5-150 μg mL<sup>-1</sup>,with r<sup>2</sup> of 0.9995 and 0.9972;whilethe detection limit values were2.53 and 2.12μg mL<sup>-1</sup> for methods A and B, respectively. Both of the suggested methods were successfully applied for the estimation of MRZ in commercial formulations. The results of the developed methods were compared with those obtained by the British pharmacopeia method, showinghigh accuracy and precision.</p> Mouyed Q. Al-Abachi, Sadeem S. Abed, Malik H. Alaloosh Alamri Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Jul 2020 19:38:49 -0500 Toxicokinetics of Titanium Dioxide (Tio2) Nanoparticles After Intraperitoneal Injection in Male Mice <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the present study, male albino mice were used to estimate the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO<sub>2</sub>) suspension used in two doses (150, 600 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal route. The results revealed a significant difference (p≤0.05) among the control and experimental groups in all haematological parameters, including a significant increase in White Blood Cell (W.B.C) count, Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), and Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH). Also, the results showed a significant decrease in Red Blood Cell (R.B.C.) count and Haemoglobin (Hb). Biochemical tests included AST and ALT and showed a significant elevation in all exposed groups, while ALP was decreased after fourteen and thirty days of exposure. In the case of kidney function, creatinine was increased in all groups during the experiment, whereas uric acid was increase in many cases and recorded the highest mean value after fourteen days of exposure to the dose of 150mg/kg and after thirty days of exposure to the dose of 600mg/kg. Level of urea was decreased in the fourteen-days and thirty-days treatment groups, while its mean values after using the two doses did not change significantly after one day. Cholesterol level was decreased after thirty days, recording the lowest mean value at 600mg/kg, whereas the level of HDL was significantly (p≤0.05) decreased and that of LDL significantly increased. The study of bioaccumulation demonstrated that the TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs are accumulated mainly in the spleen, followed by the liver and kidneys of mice, respectively. Also, the doses used caused histological alterations such as changes in the congested dilated portal tract, with heavy inflammatory cells infiltration and dilated central venule in the liver, along with glomerular congestion, tubular congestion, atrophy, chronic inflammatory cells infiltration, and dilated tubules with flat atrophied lining epithelium in the kidneys. The histologic alterations observed may represent an indication of different degrees of organ injury due to the toxicity of TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs, resulting in an inability to deal with accumulated residues from the metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these nanoparticles.</p> Tuqa A. Abdulkareem, Adel Mashaan Rabee Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Jul 2020 19:46:56 -0500 Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and LeptinLevel in Samples of Iraqi Obese Women <p>The aim of this study is to investigate oxidative stress and leptinlevel in obese women. Fifty obese women with BMI value of ≥ 30.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and thirty healthy women with BMI&lt;24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup> were involved in the study during their attendance at Gastroenterology and Liver Hospital/ Medical city in Baghdad province from October 2018 to February 2019. The age range for all women was 30-50 years. Blood samples were collected from each participant for the evaluation of the levels of leptin hormone, Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). The results of BMI, leptin hormone, MDA and SOD showed highly significant increase (P&lt;0.01) in obese women in comparison with the control group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show that BMI value were significantly higher (P&lt;0.01) in obese women (41.90 ± 0.87kg/m<sup>2</sup>)&nbsp; in comparison with the control (23.58 ± 0.28kg/m<sup>2</sup>). The level of leptin hormone was significantly higher(P&lt;0.01) in obese women (1444.00 ± 10.67pg/ml) in comparison with the control (932.26 ± 25.92pg/ml). Also, MDA level was significantly higher(P&lt;0.01) in obese women (6.81 ± 0.29mg/dl) in comparison with the control (4.53 ± 0.44) mg/dl. The level of SOD was significantly higher(P&lt;0.01) in obese women (15.67 ± 1.42mg/dl) in comparison with the control group (3.75 ± 0.60mg/dl).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Obesity is detected by the level of leptin Hormone; leptin is regarded as a good parameter for monitoring obesity,showing a high increasewith increasing BMI.Theincrease in obesity causes oxidant stress and formation of MDA that is considered as a major risk factor in obesity,where adecrease in antioxidants was also recorded.</p> Israa M. Mubarak Ali, Jabbar H. Yenzeel, Hani M. Saleh Al-ansari Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Jul 2020 19:54:26 -0500 Bacteremia Associated with Pressure Ulcers at Alyarmuk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fifty patients(24 female and 26 male)with pressure ulcersassociated with different diseasesand attending AL-yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad were selected in this study. The duration of sample collection was from March &nbsp;to December 2018. All blood samples collected from patients were submitted to a blood culturing technique to examine bacteremia. The results showed that12 blood bacterial isolates were obtained. The isolated bacteria were subjected to Vitek-2, which is an accurate identification technique. The results of the blood culturing technique revealed that 33.3% were Gram negative bacteria, while 66.6% were Gram positive. Diagnosis by Vitek-2 showed that 33.3%&nbsp; were<em>Staphylococcus spp. </em>, 33.3% were <em>Enterococcus&nbsp; spp. </em>, 25.1% were<em>Serratiamarcescens</em> and 8.3% comprised <em>Acinetobacterbaumannii</em>. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)by <u>Vitek-2</u>showed that Trimethoprime –Sulfamethazole concentration at 320 µg\ml was the MIC for <em>Acinetobacterbaumanni</em>, while piperacilin, Ticarcillin, and Ticarcillin-Clavulanic acidat 128 µg\ml were the MIC for <em>Serratia marcescens </em>. <em>Acinetobacterbaumannii</em>showed 100% resistance to all antimicrobial agents, while for the <em>Serratiamarescence</em>resistancevalues were 54.55%, 54.55%, and 45.45% for isolate numbers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Gram positive bacteria recorded NitrofurantionMIC of 256 µg\ml against<em> Staphylococcus </em><em>epidermidis</em>and <em>Enterococcus spp.</em>, withboth species showinghigh resistance&nbsp; compared with the others which had a value of87.50%.</p> Nuha S. Jassim, Sameer Abdul ameer Alash Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Jul 2020 20:00:52 -0500 Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Plant Latex <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Nanoparticles produced by plants are preferred in the medical field for its safe and unpolluted product; it is also accepted as an ecofriendly, non-expensive, and non-toxic nanomaterial. In this study, silver nitrate was successfully used to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by the use extractsof 4 different latex-producing plants which belong to 2 families (<em>Moraceae</em> and <em>Euphorbiaceae</em>). The synthesis was proved by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).The sizes of the AgNP grains were estimated by Granularity Cumulating Distribution (GCD). The results revealed the production of AgNPs in different sizes of 103 and 82 nm using the <em>Moraceae</em> family and 77 and74nm using the <em>Euphorbiaceae</em> family.Antibacterial activity was also detected against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria using the well diffusion assay. In conclusion, this source of nanoparticles can be a very useful industrial project in a goal to find new safe and economic alternatives to antibiotics.</p> Ghada Mohammed Saleh, Shaymaa Suhail Najim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Tue, 28 Jul 2020 20:07:17 -0500 Use of Two Aquatic Snail Species as Bioindicators of Heavy Metals in Tigris River-Baghdad <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Thirty individuals of <em>Bellamya bengalensis</em> and <em>Physella acuta</em> were collected and identified from the Tigris River in Baghdad during the period between October to November 2017. The efficiency of bioaccumulation of the two species as bioindicators for aquatic heavy metal pollution with Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu was investigated. Both snail species had the ability to accumulate heavy metals. The mean of Ni concentration in soft tissues of both snails was 1.53 ppm while the mean concentration of other heavy metals was significantly lower; they reached 0.51 ppm, 0.36 ppm and 0.29 ppm, respectively. While no significant differences between <em>B. bengalensis</em> and&nbsp; <em>P.acuta</em> were noticed in the ability to accumulate the heavy metals. It is concluded that both snails shared the features of good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution.:</p> Harith Saeed Al-Warid, Hayder Z Ali, Ghassan Nissan, Abbas Haider, Ahmed Yosef Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 03:57:10 -0500 High AdiponectinHormone Modulation ofBlood Erythroid Parameters and its Relation with Erythropoietin in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy <p><strong>Background: </strong>Serum adiponectin is a hormone of adipose tissue that activateslipid metabolism and exertsphysiological functions. Its level usually fluctuates in several metabolic diseases,including renal insufficiency and diabetes; it loses its protective role against diseases and becomes a potentially risk factor for erythroid abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The study was designed to assess the association between adiponectin &nbsp;hormone, blood erythroid and various parameters in groups of patients.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong>The study included 130 patientsand 42 healthy subjects. Parameters of serum adiponectin, erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), renal function, serum insulin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin % (HbA1c%) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated in all groups.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Statistical analysis showed that high level of adiponectin was significantly associated with erythroid-related variables (EPO, RBC, Hb and Hct) in patients groups when compared with the control. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that adiponectin is a significant risk factor for anemia progression in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), end stage renal disease (ESRD)and diabetic nephropathy patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We suggest that high serum adiponectin level is dependently associated with EPO level and erythroid abnormalities in NIDDM, kidney failure and diabetic nephropathy patients. The present findings regarding ROC curve analysis of adiponectin suggested that this hormone could represent a risk factor for erythroid abnormality in diabetic nephropathy at ESRD.</p> Zhian Sherzad Hayder, Zrar Saleem Kareem Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:03:07 -0500 Dominance and Frequency of Mite Species Associated with Poultry Droppings <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The present study was carried out onAl-Saqlawiya poultry farm's soil (Anbar, Iraq) for the period of 8 months (November 2018- June 2019). A total of 75 samples of poultry droppings were collectedrandomly. 552 individuals of mite,belonging to 3 orders and 8 families representing 15 species, were found. These species were: <em>Acarus gracilis,&nbsp; Acarus siro, Caloglyphus berlesi, Androlaelaps casalis, Sejus temperaticus, Parasitus paraconsanguineus, Eugamasus butleri, Macrocheles medarius, Macrocheles glaber, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, Macrocheles matrius, Kleemannia plumosus, Cheyletus eruditus, Cheyletus malaccensis,</em> and<em> Pyemotes herfsi</em>.</p> <p>The highest population density belonged to order Astigmata, followed by orders Mesostigmata and Prostigmata, respectively. The dominance and frequency of mite species were linked to the availability of appropriate conditions in terms of food source and temperatures registered in theIraqi Meteorological Directorate. Thehighest mite population densities were recorded during the winter months compared to the summer months.</p> Fatima M. A. Al-Kubaisi, Sabah I. H. Al-Dulaimi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:09:45 -0500 Biological Activities of Iraqi Fig (Ficuscarica) CrudeEthanolic and Total Flavonoids Extracts <p>The present study focuses on the biological strategy for treating cancer and parasitic infections, such as leishmaniasis antiparasitic activity, forthe crude alcoholic extract of<em>Ficus</em> leaves and their extracted total flavonoids with a comparison between their effects.The flavonoids were extracted from the leaves of the mature <em>Ficuscarica</em>using the reflux extraction method. Total flavonoids were detected qualitatively by TLC techniquewhich demonstratedthat the plant was rich indifferent flavonoids, especially Rutin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, luteolin and others. Quantitatively, the plant total flavonoids content was 337.3 mg / 100 g fig leaves calculated as rutin.The biologicaleffects of the crude and purified total flavonoid on cell lines (L-20B and MCF7) and two parasites (<em>Leishmaniatropica</em> ,<em>Leishmaniadonvani)</em> were investigated. Maximum growthinhibition rates forthe total flavonoids onthe cell linesL20B andMCF7 reached 43 % at the concentration of 0.169 mg/ml and 28% at the concentration of 2.7 mg/ml, respectively, in comparison with the negative control. The ethanoliccrude extract had a low effect on L20-B cell line, while the inhibition rate forMCF-7 cell linereached 34% at a concentration of 0.084 mg/ml. For <em>Leishmaniatropica,</em>the total flavonoid and crude plant extractcaused maximum inhibition rates of 48% and 56%, respectively,at a concentration of 2.7 mg/ml for both. Cytotoxicity valueon <em>Leshmaniadonovani</em> was 20% for the crude extract at 1.35 mg/ml concentration, whereas it was11% for the total flavonoids&nbsp; at a concentration of 0.169 mg/ml. In conclusion, the differences in anticancer and anti-parasitic&nbsp; activitiesareattributed to differentcompounds present in each extract.</p> Mohammad Mahmoud Farhan Al-Halbosiy, Zainab Yaseen Mohammed Hasan, Farooq Ibrahem Mohammad, Baraa Abdulhadi Abdulhameed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:19:02 -0500 Molecular Comparison of Free -Living Amoeba Isolated From Iraqi, Iranian and Turkish Waters <p>Amoebas live freely in different climates and parts of the world. Several species of Free Living Amoeba (FLA) are capable of causing serious as well as fatal infections in human beings. The aim of this study was to identify and compare genotypes of water-polluting FLA in major rivers and lakes of Iraq and compare them with FLA isolates from Iran and Turkey. For this purpose, the study included 20 water samples from the Tigris River, Euphrates River , Najaf Sea and Dukan lake in Iraq, 20 water samples from&nbsp; Marivan, Velasht, and Soleimanshah lakes and Caspian sea in Iran, and 20 water samples from Sabanca, Seyfi , Hazar and Yay lakes in Turkey. The samples were studied by culture methods, invert microscope, and molecular methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After inoculation and microscopic examination, cysts and trophozoites were detected in 18 cultured specimens. Overall, out of 60 water samples, 30 cases (30%) were found to be contiminated in the three countries. The highest pollution was in Turkish waters (40%), while the rate in the Iraqi and Iranian water samples was the same (25%). Because of the various species of FLA , it may be difficult to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic species by culture on non-nutrient agar. Therefore, the molecular technology was applied in this study. Only a specific band of <em>Acanthamoeba</em> Rns genes which ranged from 423 to 551 nucleotides was observed. The isolates belonged to the T3 genotype . In addition, it was a new isolate that differs from what exists in other neighboring countries , registered in the GenBank under accession number MN462973 as the <em>Acanthamoeba</em> genotype T3 isolate T3 Iraq . This is&nbsp; the first study to detect pathogenic FLA in Iraq by PCR and Sequencing techniques. Given the high prevalence of <em>Acanthamoeba</em> potential pathogenic genotypes in various environmental sources and the evidence of T3 genotype in Iraqi specimens , more studies about <em>Acanthamoeba</em> and other pathogenic FLA for various environmental sources in Iraq are required.</p> Turkan K. Karyagdi, Shihab A. Mohammed, Husain F. Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:26:05 -0500 Effect of Adding Coumarin Dye on Physical Properties of Blend (PC-PS) Film <p>Pure blend (PC-PS) and doped blend films with various volume ratio of Coumarin dye were prepared by using casting method. The absorption and transmission spectra for these films were measured using UV/VIS spectrometer technique in order to assessment the type of transition which was found to be indirect transition. The optical energy gap of pure PC was (4.24) eV, pure PS was (4.39) eV, Coumarin dye was (4.08) eV, and pure blend was (4.1) eV. After doping blend with Coumarin dye; the energy gap decreases by (0.06) eV in volume ratio (12) ml. The results showed that absorption coefficient and refractive index affects by doping. When adding the Coumarin dye to the pure blend with different concentrations (12, 24, 36, and 48) ml, the FTIR spectrum will be affected by the disappearance of peaks and appears new peaks.</p> Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy, Rawasi Ayad Al-Mousawi, Farah Jawad Kadhum Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:30:48 -0500 CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell for Luminescent Solar Concentrator <p>Fabrication and investigation of the properties of CdSe/ZnS core/shell for the luminescent solar concentrates (LSC) application is presented. An increase of the efficiency of a silicon solar cell was obtained by applying the LSC. The increase was a result of the optical properties of the semiconductor nanoparticles CdSe/ZnS core/shell that were deposited over the top surface of the silicon solar cell facing the illumination source (Halogen lamp). The gravity force was invested for the film deposition process.The optical properties of these nanoparticles were studied. The absorption spectra for the CdSe/ZnS core-shell were 270-600nm, i.e., located within the spectral response area of the examined solar cell. The energy gap values for CdSe were 2.5 eV and 3.3eV for ZnS. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was adopted and showed that the particle dimensions are within the nanometer scale.The efficiency value of the bare solar cell was 7.3%, whereas the value was increased to 8.0 % by applying the CdSe/ZnS core/shell LSC, indicating an efficiency gain percentage of 9.59%.</p> Eman Abd alkareem Fadhil, Manal Madhat Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:40:20 -0500 Optical Fiber Biomedical Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance <p>Optical fiber biomedical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for measuring and sensing the concentration and the refractive index of sugar in blood serum is designed and implemented during this work. Performance properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity, resolution and the figure of merit were evaluated for the fabricated sensor. It was found that the sensitivity of the optical fiber-based SPR sensor with 40 nm thick and 10 mm long Au metal film of the exposed sensing region is 7.5µm/RIU, SNR is 0.697, figure of merit is 87.2 and resolution is 0.00026. The sort of optical fiber utilized in this work is plastic optical fiber with a core diameter of 980 µm, a cladding of 20μm, and a numerical aperture of 0.51.</p> Namaa Salem Rahim, Sudad S. Ahmed, Murtadha Faaiz Sultan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:47:34 -0500 Comparison Between Confined and Unconfined Laser Peening Effect on the Fatigue Life of Composite Materials <p>Mechanical Engineering Department/ University of Technology- Baghdad.</p> <p>Confinement layer is considered as the most important parameter during the laser shock peening (LSP) treatment.&nbsp; In this paper, its effect on the surface treatment effectivity of composite materials was investigated. The composite used in this research was fabricated using hand lay-up as a manufacturing process. The matrix material was built from unsaturated polyester resin and reinforced with 2.5% volume fraction of micro particles of aluminum powder. Fatigue test was conducted at room temperature with constant amplitude stress and a stress ratio of R =-1, before and after LSP treatment. LSP was applied with and without confinement layer at the same level of energy after the specimens were coated with a black paint. The results manifested that the laser peening without confinement layer increased the endurance limit by about 13.296% compared with the untreated state. Whereas using water as a confinement layer during treatment reduced the endurance strength by about 18.133% compared to the untreated state. Also, it was observed that the difference between confined and unconfined LSP effects on the endurance limit was about 31.429%.</p> Ahmed N. Al- Khazraji, Ammar A. Mutasher Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 04:55:40 -0500 Spectroscopic Analysis of CdO1-X: SnX Plasma Produced by Nd:YAG Laser <p>In this work, the optical emission spectrum technique was used to analyze the spectrum resulting from the CdO:Sn plasma produced by laser Nd:YAG with<u> a </u>wavelength of (1064) nm, duration of (9) ns, and a focal length of (10) cm in the range of energy of 500-800 mJ. The electron temperature (T<sub>e</sub>) was calculated using the in ratio line intensities method, while the electron density (n<sub>e</sub>) was calculated using Saha-Boltzmann equation. Also, other plasma parameters were calculated, such as plasma (f<sub>p</sub>), Debye length (λ<sub>D</sub>) and Debye number (N<sub>D</sub>). At mixing ratios of X=0.1, 0.3 and 0.5, the CdO<sub>1-X </sub>:Sn<sub>X</sub> plasma spectrum was recorded for different energies. The changes in electron temperature and the densities were studied as a function of the laser energies. Outcome measure value of the electron temperature at the ratio of &nbsp;X = 0.1 was (1.079-1.054) eV, while at &nbsp;X=0.3 the T<sub>e</sub> range was (0.952- 0.921) eV and at X=0.5 it was (0.928-0.906) eV.</p> Madyan A. Khalaf, Baida M. Ahmed, Kadhim A. Aadim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 05:05:18 -0500 Determination of DynamicElastic Properties of Anah Formation, Near Rawa city / Western Iraq Using Ultrasonic Technique <p>The aim of the current&nbsp; study is to determine the elastic properties&nbsp; of carbonate rocks using ultrasonic method.&nbsp; Forty rock samples of&nbsp; Anah formation&nbsp; were collected at&nbsp; different depths from&nbsp; four wells drilled at the study area . The relationship between wave velocities and elastic properties of rocks was defined. Regression analyses to define these relations were applied. The results indicate that the elastic properties of the rocks show a linear relationship with both P- and S-wave velocities. The best relationship was obtained between both Young's modulus and Shear modulus with Vs in the determination of the coefficient ( R<sup>2</sup>&nbsp; ), with values of 0.91 and 0.94,&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; Bulk modulus and&nbsp; Lame’s constant were&nbsp; better correlated with Vp than with Vs&nbsp; in the determination of R<sup>2</sup>,with values of 0.92 and 0.83, respectively. Poisson’s ratio&nbsp; showed a good correlation using the ratio of Vp/Vs in the determination of R<sup>2</sup>, with a value of 0.81. The main output of this &nbsp;study shows that the ultrasonic method is a useful tool for the prediction of the elastic dynamic properties of sample rocks and that it can be used as an economical , simple and &nbsp;non- destructive method, especially for engineering purposes.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Salman Z. Khorshid, Munther D. Al-Awsi, Emad H. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 05:13:30 -0500 Study of the Rocks and Analysis of Morphotectonic Uplift Between Kirkuk and Qara Chauq Anticlines Using Remote Sensing Techniques <p>This study aims to demonstrate the morphotectonic evidence (drainage pattern, formations of sedimentary rocks, structural ridge deformations and spectral reflectance differences…etc.) for tectonic uplift with the syncline zone between two major anticlines, Kirkuk anticline in the northeast and Qara Chauq anticline in the southwest. The study area is located in the low folded zone at the geographical coordinates of 35º 45´ to 35º 55´ North and 43º 30´ to 44º 00´ East. In this study, the tectonic uplift was named as Dushwan uplift, because the uplift of the rocks was adjacent to Dushwan village.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The regional stress, originating from the collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate, is still affecting the study area, as presented by the rock deformations of the southwestern structural ridges of Kirkuk anticline and the whole Qara Chauq structure. It is dividing the drainage pattern basin within the major syncline into two different drainage basins with different directions from the center of this uplift, in addition to the rocks deformation of the eastern plunge of Bai Hassan anticline. This uplift was demonstrated through four sectional profiles made by using Google Earth and Global Mapper software.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In addition, the uplift of the rocks was identified by the visual interpretation of the satellite images and the digital interpretation of the DEM and satellite images using software (such as Arc GIS and Global Mapper) for the study area.</p> <p>The above morphotectonic evidence indicate that the rocks in the study area are influenced by tectonic activity (Dushwan uplift) through three suggested mechanisms; First, propagation of two synclines, one existed between Kirkuk anticline and Bai Hassan Anticline and the other located between Qara Chauq anticline and Guwair anticline of a northwest- southeast trend. Second, this uplift of the rocks was resulted by a deep-seated fault that extends to the basement faults with a northeast- southwest direction. Third, a Salt Diapir was forced from salty formations existed in this area.</p> Alaa N. Hamdon, Laith kh. Ibraheem, Ghazi A. Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 16:29:44 -0500 Seismotectonics and Seismic Source Parameters of the Mid-Eastern Iraq - Western Iran Using Moment Tensor Inversion Technique <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study area is encompassed by the 33.59-34.93°N latitudes and 45.44-46.39°E longitudes and divided into four groups with respect to earthquake event locations. We determined fault plane solutions, moment magnitudes, focal depths, and trend of slip with the direction of the moment stress axes (P, N, and T) for 102 earthquakes. These earthquakes had a local magnitude in the range between 4.0 and 6.4 for the time period from January 2018 to the end of August 2019, with focal depths ranged between 6 and 17 km. Waveform moment tensor inversion technique was used to analyze the database constructed from seismic stations on local and neighboring country networks (Iraq, Iran, and Turkey). We separated the studied events into four regional subsets (circles). The types of the obtained fault plane solutions are predominantly thrust fault and strike-slip, with the focal depths ranging from 8 to 21 km.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A new scaling relation between local magnitude (Ml) and the estimated moment magnitude (M<em>w</em>) has been developed utilizing a linear regression. Good match results obtained in the present research good match with both seismic trends concluded from earthquake locations and mapped faults. Generally, direction shows NW–SE striking focal planes corresponding with the tectonic framework of the Arabian–Eurasian continental collision zone. The anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian plate that appears accountable for strike-slip displacements on fault surfaces.</p> Hasanain Jasim Mohammed, Ali M. Al-Rahim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 16:36:57 -0500 Influence of Inclined MHD on Unsteady Flow of Generalized Maxwell Fluid with Fractional Derivative between Two Inclined Coaxial Cylinders through a Porous Medium <p>"This paper presents a study of inclined magnetic field on the unsteady rotating flow of a generalized Maxwell fluid with fractional derivative between two inclined infinite circular cylinders through a porous medium. The analytic solutions for velocity field and shear stress are derived by using the Laplace transform and finite Hankel transform in terms of the generalized G functions. The effect of the physical parameters of the problem on the velocity field is discussed and illustrated graphically.</p> Sundos Bader, Suad Naji Kadhim, Ahmed. M. Abdulhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 16:44:26 -0500 Some Chaotic Properties of G- Average Shadowing Property <p>&nbsp;Let &nbsp;be a metric space and &nbsp;be a continuous map. The notion of the &nbsp;-average shadowing property ( ASP )&nbsp; for a continuous map on &nbsp;–space is introduced&nbsp; and the relation between the ASP and average shadowing property(ASP)is investigated. We show that if &nbsp;has ASP, then&nbsp; &nbsp;has ASP for every . We prove that if a map &nbsp;be pseudo-equivariant with dense set of periodic points and has the ASP,&nbsp; then &nbsp;is weakly mixing. We also show that if&nbsp; &nbsp;is a expansive pseudo-equivariant homeomorphism that has the ASP and &nbsp;is topologically mixing,&nbsp; then &nbsp;has a &nbsp;-specification. We obtained that the identity map &nbsp;on &nbsp;has the ASP&nbsp; if and only if the orbit space &nbsp;of &nbsp;is totally disconnected. Finally, we show that if &nbsp;is a pseudo-equivariant map, and&nbsp; the trajectory&nbsp; map &nbsp;is a covering map, then &nbsp;has the ASP&nbsp; if and only if the induced map &nbsp; has ASP.</p> Raad Safah Abood AL–Juboory, Iftichar M. T. AL-Shara’a Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 16:51:09 -0500 A New Mixed Nonpolynomial Spline Method for the Numerical Solutions of Time Fractional Bioheat Equation <p>In this paper, a numerical approximation for a time fractional one-dimensional bioheat equation (transfer paradigm) of temperature distribution in tissues is introduced. It deals with the Caputo fractional derivative with order for time fractional derivative and new mixed nonpolynomial spline for second order of space derivative. We also analyzed the convergence and stability by employing Von Neumann method for the present scheme.</p> Ammar Muslim Abdullhussein, Hameeda Oda Al-Humedi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 16:56:18 -0500 Numerical Study of Radiative Magnetohydrodynamics Viscous Nanofluid Due to Convective Stretching Sheet with the Chemical Reaction Effect <p>A numerical investigation was performed for the radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous nanofluid due to convective stretching sheet. Heat and mass transfer were investigated in terms of viscous dissipations, thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The governing Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) were transformed into an arrangement of non-linear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) by using the similarity transformation. The resulting system of ODEs is solved numerically by using shooting method along with Adams-Moulton Method of order four with the help of the computational software FORTAN. Furthermore, we compared our results with the existing results for especial cases. which are in an excellent agreement. The<br>numerical solution obtained the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. The figures showed differences among the parameters. Moreover, the numerical values of Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were presented and analyzed through tables.</p> G Narender, K Govardhan, G Sreedhar Sarma Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:08:22 -0500 A Descent Modification of Conjugate Gradient Method for Optimization Models <p>In this paper, we suggest a descent modification of the conjugate gradient method which converges globally provided that the exact minimization condition is satisfied. Preliminary numerical experiments on some benchmark problems show that the method is efficient and promising.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ibrahim Mohammed Sulaiman, Mustafa Mamat, Kamilu Kamfa, Muktar Danlami Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:19:49 -0500 Analytical Study on Approximate 𝝐-Birkhoff-James Orthogonality <p>In this paper, we obtain a complete characterization for the norm and the minimum norm attainment sets of bounded linear operators on a real Banach spaces at a vector in the unit sphere, using approximate 𝜖-Birkhoff-James orthogonality techniques. As an application of the results, we obtained a useful characterization of<br>bounded linear operators on a real Banach spaces. Also, using approximate 𝜖-Birkhoff -James orthogonality proved that a Banach space is a reflexive if and only if for any closed hyperspace of , there exists a rank one linear operator such that , for some vectors in and such that 𝜖 .Mathematics subject classification (2010): 46B20, 46B04, 47L05.</p> Saied A. Jhonny, Buthainah A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:27:35 -0500 Dual-Stage Social Friend Recommendation System Based on User Interests <p>The use of online social network (OSN) has become essential to humans' lives whether for entertainment, business or shopping. This increasing use of OSN motivates designing and implementing special systems that use OSN users' data to provide better user experience using machine learning and data mining algorithms and techniques. One system that is used extensively for this purpose is friend recommendation system (FRS) in which it recommends users to other users in professional or entertaining online social networks.</p> <p>For this purpose, this study proposes a novel friend recommendation system, namely Hybrid Friend Recommendation (FR) model. The Hybrid model applies dual-stage methodology on unlabeled data of 1241 users collected from OSN users via our online survey platform featuring user interests and activities based upon which users with similar social behavioral patterns are recommended to each other. The model employs a variety of techniques including user-based collaborative filtering (UBCF) approach and graph-based approach friend-of-friend recommendation (FOF). The model offers unique solutions to common problems of FRS such as data sparsity by using dimensionality technique called non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to create a dense representation of the collected data and reduce its sparsity as well as providing seamless integration with other FRSs. The evaluation of the hybrid FR model shows positive correlation of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) compared to the baseline used.</p> Sammer A. Qader, Ayad R. Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:37:48 -0500 Security of Wireless Sensor Nodes <p>Due to the large-scale development in satellite and network communication technologies, there is a significant demand for preserving the secure storage and transmission of the data over the internet and shared network environments. New challenges appeared that are related to the protection of critical and sensitive data<br>from illegal usage and unauthorized access. In this paper, we address the issues described above and develop new techniques to eliminate the associated problems. To achieve this, we propose a design of a new sensor node for tracking the location of cars and collecting all information and all visited locations by cars, followed by<br>encryption in a sensor node and saving in the database. A microcontroller of Arduino esp8266 Node MCU board and a GPS module are used. The cryptography uses the chaos-based symmetric-key encryption technique for data. This scheme utilizes a chaotic map (Hénon map) for robustness and security of data. The key sensitivity can be performed by statistical experiments to determine the safety, reliability, and speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm presents several exciting features, such as a high level of security, sufficient saving of the energy of the sensor network, and an acceptable encryption speed compared to Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Data Encryption Standard (DES).</p> Alya'a Abdulrazzak Msekh, Jamal Mohamed Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:46:03 -0500 Fog-based Spider Web Algorithm to Overcome Latency in Cloud Computing <p>The cloud-users are getting impatient by experiencing the delays in loading the content of the web applications over the internet, which is usually caused by the complex latency while accessing the cloud datacenters distant from the cloud-users. It is becoming a catastrophic situation in availing the services and applications over the cloud-centric network. In cloud, workload is distributed across the multiple layers which also increases the latency. Time-sensitive Internet of Things (IoT) applications and services, usually in a cloud platform, are running over various virtual machines (VM’s) and possess high complexities while interacting. They face difficulties in the consolidations of the various applications containing heterogenetic workloads. Fog computing takes the cloud computing services to the edge-network, where computation, communication and storage are within the proximity to the end-user’s edge devices. Thus, it utilizes the maximum network bandwidth, enriches the mobility, and lowers the latency. It is a futuristic, convenient and more reliable platform to overcome the cloud computing issues. In this manuscript, we propose a Fog-based Spider Web Algorithm (FSWA), a heuristic approach which reduces the delays time (DT) and enhances the response time (RT) during the workflow among the various edge nodes across the fog network. The main purpose is to trace and locate the nearest f-node for computation and to reduce the latency across the various nodes in a network. Reduction of latency will enhance the quality of service (QoS) parameters, smooth resource distribution, and services availability. Latency can be an important factor for resource optimization issues in distributed computing environments. In comparison to the cloud computing, the latency in fog computing is much improved.</p> ABDUL RASHID DAR, D Ravindran, Shahidul Islam Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:50:59 -0500 Factors Affecting Application Launch Time with Android OS <p>Android OS is developing very fast, and because of being an open source OS, it is vulnerable to many problems that are manifested to users directly or indirectly. Poor application launch time is one of these problems. In this paper, a set of sixteen experiments is established to distinguish the factors that have the most evident effects on application launch time in Android mobiles. These factors are application, launch and kill, events, and storage. Mann Kendall (MK) test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Design of Experiment (DOE) are used to prove the influence of factors statistically. As a result of the experiments, the application factor, especially the third party applications level, has the most prominent effects on application launch time, followed by launch and Kill and events, while storage had the least influence.</p> Khalid Sabah Noori, Assmaa A. Fahad Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 17:56:45 -0500 Fractal Image Compression Using Block Indexing Technique: A Review <p>Fractal image compression depends on representing an image using affine transformations. The main concern for researches in the discipline of fractal image compression (FIC) algorithm is to decrease encoding time needed to compress image data. The basic technique is that each portion of the image is similar to other portions of the same image. In this process, there are many models that were developed. The presence of fractals was initially noticed and handled using Iterated Function System (IFS); that is used for encoding images. In this paper, a review of fractal image compression is discussed with its variants along with other techniques. A summarized review of contributions is achieved to determine the fulfillment of fractal image compression, specifically for the block indexing methods based on the moment descriptor.&nbsp; Block indexing method depends on classifying the domain and range blocks using moments to generate an invariant descriptor that reduces the long encoding time. A comparison is performed between the blocked indexing technology and other fractal image techniques to determine the importance of block indexing in saving encoding time and achieving better compression ratio while maintaining image quality on Lena image.</p> Zainab J. Ahmed, Loay E. George, Zinah S. Abduljabbar Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 18:04:06 -0500 Automatic Vehicles Detection, Classification and Counting Techniques / Survey <p>Vehicle detection (VD) plays a very essential role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that have been intensively studied within the past years. The need for intelligent facilities expanded because the total number of vehicles is increasing rapidly in urban zones. Traffic monitoring is an important element in the intelligent transportation system, which involves the detection, classification, tracking, and counting of vehicles. One of the key advantages of traffic video detection is that it provides traffic supervisors with the means to decrease congestion and improve highway planning. Vehicle detection in videos combines image processing in real-time with computerized pattern recognition in flexible stages. The real-time processing is very critical to keep the appropriate functionality of automated or continuously working systems. VD in road traffics has numerous applications in the transportation engineering field. In this review, different automated VD systems have been surveyed,&nbsp; with a focus on systems where the rectilinear stationary camera is positioned above intersections in the road rather than being mounted on the vehicle. Generally, three steps are utilized to acquire traffic condition information, including background subtraction (BS), vehicle detection and vehicle counting. First, we illustrate the concept of vehicle detection and discuss background subtraction for acquiring only moving objects. Then a variety of algorithms and techniques developed to detect vehicles are discussed beside illustrating their advantages and limitations. Finally, some limitations shared between the systems are demonstrated, such as the definition of ROI, focusing on only one aspect of detection, and the variation of accuracy with quality of videos. At the point when one can detect and classify vehicles, then it is probable to more improve the flow of the traffic and even give enormous information that can be valuable for many applications in the future.</p> Mustafa Najm, Yossra Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 18:09:39 -0500 Interpolation and Statistical Analysis for Evaluation of Global Earth Gravity Models Based on GPS and Orthometric Heights in the Middle of Iraq <p>The regions around the world need to perform their results based on the local geoid. However, each region has different ground topography based on the amount of gravity in this region. Nowadays, the recent global Earth's gravity model of 2008 is successfully used for different purposes in geosciences research. This research presents an overview of the preliminary evaluation results of the new Earth Gravitation Model (EGM08) in the middle of Iraq. For completeness, the evaluation tests were also performed for EGM96 by examining 31 stations distributed over four Iraqi provinces. The national orthometric heights were compared with the GPS /leveling data obtained from these stations. This study illustrated that the GPS /leveling based on EGM08 data was better than that based on EGM96 data in terms of reducing the root mean square error (RMSE) of the differences between the orthometric heights and GPS/leveling data. &nbsp;The standard deviation (SD) values for the national orthometric heights and GPS heights were about 4 and 26cm, respectively. The results also show that there is a small difference in hight ranged (0.0013 - 0.1333 m) in Karbala, (0.0023 – 0.0062 m), in Najaf and&nbsp; (0.0173 – 0.0703 m), in Babylon. Due to the flat area, better results were obtained in Karbala and Najaf than Babylon. The EGM08 geoid method has shown to yield very close results to reality for various projects, thus its accuracy is acceptable.</p> Aysar Jameel Abdulkadhum Aljanbi, Hayder Dibs, Bashar H. Alyasery Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 18:16:26 -0500 Laser Distance Sensors Evaluation for Geomatics Researches <p>In this study, an approach inspired by a standardized calibration method was used to test a laser distance meter (LDM). A laser distance sensor (LDS) was tested with respect to an LDM and then a statistical indicator explained that the former functions in a similar manner as the latter. Also, regression terms were used to estimate the additive error and scale the correction of the sensors. The specified distance was divided into several parts with percent of longest one and observed using two sensors, left and right. These sensors were evaluated by using the regression between the measured and the reference values. The results were computed using MINITAB 17 package software and excel office package. The accuracy of the results in this work was ± 4.4mm + 50.89 ppm and ± 4.96mm + 99.88 ppm for LDS1 and LDS2, respectively, depending on the LDM accuracy which was computed to the full range (100 m). Using these sensors can be very effective for industrial, 3D modeling purposes, and many other applications, especially that it is inexpensive and available in many versions.</p> Abbas Zedan Khalaf, Bashar H Alyasery Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Wed, 29 Jul 2020 18:23:37 -0500