Iraqi Journal of Science http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 Re-Use of Date Palm Wastes to Improve Aging of Composite Concrete System http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1030 <p>The presented research aims to manipulate and improve the aging behaviors of concrete composite systems by employing ecologically safe date palm (seeds and husks) waste as a filler. In addition, optimized workability, durability, and erosion resistance properties for the new material were investigated.<br>The experimental work included the application of different mixing ratios (50/50, 30/70, and 70/30) of husk date/ date seeds to study the enhanced physicochemical behaviors and erosion resistant of bio-waste-concrete composite system exposed to severe temperature conditions (50 ºC) for a time period of 25 days. Optimum results were observed for samples reinforced with the natural filler with a ratio of 50/50 in comparison to the base samples.<br>In conclusion, good resistance to erosion and creeping thickness appeared at optimum conditions of 250 μm particle size. Also, higher reaction compatibility and less pores between particles were observed, which improved all physical and chemical properties as depicted by SEM images.</p> Falak O. Abas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 462 471 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.1 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Subs. -1,3,4-Thiadiazolependant on Modified Poly(5-Vinyl Tetrazole-Co-MA) http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1296 <p>New polymers were prepared from a monomer (5-vinyl-1H-tetrazole), which was prepared from acrylonitrile with sodium azide in the presence of ZnCl2.Another monomer (Methyl acrylate) was also used. Co-monomers were polymerized usingBPO as initiator. The second step was the preparation of copoly acid hydrazide from the reaction of compound2 with hydrazine hydrate, followed by the reaction with carbon disulphide in the presence of KOH to obtain copoly (5-subs.-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole). Next,compound4 was reacted with chloroacetyl chloride to yield compound4 5 which was reacted with (hydrazine hydrate , phenyl hydrazine and 2,4-di nitro phenyl hydrazine) as shown in scheme(1). Physical properties of all the prepared copolymers were characterized by FT-IR and, in certain cases,by1HNMR spectroscopy.</p> Raghad Hamid Intisar Obaid Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 472 484 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.2 The Study of the Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside in Anxiety-Like Behavior in Mice in Comparison With Diazepam http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1507 <p>Anxiety has become a highly paramount field of research attention in psychopharmacology today. Sundry studies have shown a nitric oxide role in the regulation of anxiety. The goal of the study was to investigate sodium nitroprusside ability to affect anxiety-like behavior in mice and to compare this effect with the standard anxiolytic drug, diazepam, using both plus maze test and light/dark box test. The results revealed that sodium nitroprusside at a dose of 1 mg/kg had a significant effect on the behavior in both of the elevated plus maze test and light/dark test. However, at higher dose (3 mg/kg), it has significantly increased the anxiogenic-like effect in the light/dark box test. Diazepam at a dose of 2 mg/kg increased the time spent in open arms in elevated plus maze test and that in light chambers of light/dark test. These outcomes suggest that a nitric oxide pathway seems to play an important role in anxiety. Furthermore, sodium nitroprusside at a dose of 1 mg/kg showed a nearly anxiolytic ability, when compared with diazepam.</p> Abeer Mudhafar Al-Humaidhi Afrah Thiab Hlail Semaa H. Shalal Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 485 490 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.3 A Study of the Association Between IL-17 and HOMA-IR in Iraqi Type 2 Diabetic Patients http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1572 <p>Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the furthermost common form of DM which is identified by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. This study aims to detect the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in patients with T2DM compared with the healthy control and to investigate the relationship between IL-17 and insulin resistance. The study involved 50 Iraqi T2DM patients, randomly selected with an age range of 33-71 years .For the purpose of comparison, 30 Iraqi healthy persons with an age range of 33-71 years were also included. Patients and control groups were characterized in terms of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance(HOMA-IR),fasting serum glucose (FSG) and lipid profile. The means of IL-17 (368.45 vs. 128.50 pg/ml), HOMA-IR (7.94vs. 2.14),FSG (152.82 vs. 81.53 mg/dl), fasting serum insulin (FSI) level (19.37 vs. 10.71 μIU/ml), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL),and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were significantly higher in T2DM patients as compared to controls. While, levels of Total Cholesterol (TC)and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)showed non-significant differences. In conclusion, IL-17 seems to play a significant role as a risk factor for the development of T2DM.Also, higher (HOMA-IR) gives rise to a hyperglycemic state and is a major risk factor for the development of T2DM.</p> Khetam M. Abbas Shakir .F. T. Alaaraji Refif Sabih Al–Shawk Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 491 498 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.4 Evaluation of Calcium Regulating Hormones and Some Biochemical Parameters in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1579 <p>The present study aims to evaluate levels of calcium regulating hormones and some biochemical parameters in a sample of growth hormone (GH) deficient patients. Seventy five GH deficient patients and twenty healthy subjects used as a control group have been involved in this study during their attendance at the National Diabetic Centerfor Treatment and Research /Al-Mustansiriya University. The studied subjects were in an age range of 3-15 years. Blood samples were collected from the studied subjects to determine levels of basal GH,GH2. and GH3 after 60 mins. and 90mins. of provocation with clonidine. The study also included the measurement of the levels of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1); calcium regulating hormones [parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D],and some biochemical parameters [calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), urea, and creatinine].<br>Distribution of the studied groups according to gender revealed that most of the GH deficientpatients (60 %) were males while 40 % were females,with the difference being statistically significant (P&lt;0.05), while the control included two equal subgroups (50 % males and 50 % females). Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups Distribution of the studied groups according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed according to BMI values showed that the percentage of underweight was significantly (P&lt;0.01) higher in the patients (48%) compared to the control (10%), while the percentage of normal weight was significantly (P&lt;0.01) higher in the control (85%) as compared to the patients (40%).<br>The results showed highly significant decreases (P&lt;0.01) in the levels of basal GH, GH2 and GH3 in the patients as compared to the control group. Also, IGF-1 levels showed a high significant (P&lt;0.01) decrease in the patients as compared to the control group.The findings of calcium regulating hormones revealed non-significant differences in the levels of PTH and vitamin D between the patients and the control group. Also, the results of the biochemical parameters (Ca, P, urea, and creatinine) showed non-significant differences in their values between the patients and the control group.<br>It can be concluded from the present study that GH deficiency (GHD) seems to be dominating in the males under weighted patients. The diagnosis of GHD cannot be achieved at the basal GH level.IGF-1 is a reliable marker of GH functions. Finally, levels of calcium regulating hormones are not affected by GHD.</p> Shaymaa H. Aldabagh Makarim Q. Al-Lami Abdilkarim Y. Al-Samarriae Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 499 507 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.5 The Impact of LHR Gene Polymorphism Rs12470652 in Women with POF and Nihh, A Case-Control Study http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1590 <p>The current study was designed to investigate the impact of the missense Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Asn291Ser (c.872A&gt;G: rs12470652), of LHR gene (Luteinizing hormone receptor gene) in peripheral blood samples of Iraqi infertile women diagnosed with premature ovarian failure (POF) and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism(niHH, patients with normal sense of smell). Following the hormonal analysis, fifty women diagnosed with premature ovarian failure and fifty women diagnosed with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were included as patient groups, while fifty healthy fertile women were enrolled as a control group. The blood samples were obtained from patient and control groups at Kamal Al-Samarrai Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq through March to December 2018. The genotyping of the SNP (rs12470652) was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) of the purified genomic DNA obtained from All-cell-pellet (ACP) of blood samples. The frequency of the LHR (rs12470652), p.Asn291Ser minor allele G, was found to be 32% healthy fertile women, 30 % of those with POF (p = 0.879), and 28% in the niHH patients (p = 0.644) Therefore, no statistically significant differences were found. This research aims to study the relationship between polymorphism in the region of LHR gene position: 872 A &gt; G, (Asn291Ser), (rs12470652), and both premature ovarian failure and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Therefore, the potential influence of (rs12470652) p.Asn291Ser polymorphism on both types of female infertility of an Iraqi population was evaluated. In conclusion, no impact was observed since the conducted study on a sample population of Iraqi women showed that the prevalence of LHR (rs12470652) polymorphisms did not significantly differ in the two infertile patients groups (POF and niHH) as compared to the healthy fertile control group.</p> Samer Thamir Mahmoud Mahmoud Abdul Kareem A. Alkazaz Bushra J. Al-Musawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 508 516 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.6 Colistin Susceptibility in Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae and their Ability of Biofilm Formation http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1688 <p>A total of 157 clinical samples were collected from different clinical specimens (urine, sputum, blood, swabs, and cannula) from several hospitals in Iraq. Among the samples, 51 isolates (32.48%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified according to morphologicaland cultural characteristics as well as the Enterosystem 18R test. Higher numbers of K. pneumoniae isolates were observed in urine samples (26, 52%) than the other samples, and in females (70.6%) than males (29.4%) (female: male ratio of about 2.4:1). Antibiotic susceptibility of K. pneumoniae against 12 commonly used antibiotics was determined through the disc-diffusion method. The results revealed a higher resistance rate in 51 isolates (100%) against Cephalexin, followed by Ceftazidime (50, 98%), while the lowest resistance rate (24, 47%) was against each of Imipenem and Meropenem. Also, the investigation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Colistin using E-test (strips) demonstrated that 33 isolates were resistance, as compared to 31 using the disk diffusion assay. DNA was extracted from K. pneumoniae isolates and molecularly tested using polymerase chain technique (PCR) with a specific primer and 108 bp product to detect the rpoB gene that represents this bacteria . Also, all of the 51 isolates of K. pneumoniae identified by the rpoB gene were detected for the expression of the Colistin drug resistance gene mgr-B , which was amplified (347 bp) using a specific primer. Colistin resistance gene mgr-B was amplified and sequenced from the twenty isolates. Only 6 isolates appeared with a single nucleotide substitution; G instead A, A instead G, C instead G and G instead C. Also, this study tested biofilm formation from K. pneumoniae isolates , using the microtiter plate method, in association with Colistin and Carbapenem resistant. The Colistin and Carbapenem resistance pattern was compared to the ability of biofilm-formation as weak formation versus strong and also, Multi-drug resistant isolates were more common among weak versus strong biofilm formers.</p> Sarab Murad Kadum Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 517 527 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.7 Uranium Concentration in Some Medical Herbs http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/962 <p>Uranium concentration and the annual committed effective dose in some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Iraq have been determined using fission tracks technique etch in twelve medical plants samples using CR-39 track detector. The results show that the uranium concentration ranged from 0.044±0.021 ppm in Thyme sample to 0.2±0.03 ppm in Black Pepper and Cardamom samples with an average value of 0.14 ±0.0 4ppm. The average annual effective dose due to ingestion of uranium radionuclide was 13.77x10 -5 mSv/y, which is below the world average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv/y for ingestion of natural radionuclides.</p> Laith Ahmed Najam Nada F. Tawfiq Enas M. Younis Ibtisam M. Abdual Aziz Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 528 532 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.8 Evaluation and Comparison of Temperature-Based Models for The Prediction of The Monthly Average of Daily Global Solar Radiation for Baghdad City- Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1255 <p>The solar energy is the major source of power for the future and an important source of renewable energy in Iraq and the world. Suitable climate conditions for solar energy are available in Iraq, especially the high temperature in the summer season which extends for more than six months in the year. Hence, the global solar radiation is abundant with high intensity, which is very essential in applicable models for researchers and solar applications. Therefore, nine first-order regression empirical equations of Angstrom-type correlations were used to estimate the more appropriate global solar radiation model for Baghdad city. Two equations were developed empirically in this work, using the most available and easy to get meteorological data, which is the temperature value in various forms. The results of the comparison between the real and calculated values showed reasonable agreement for most equations (including the development of R2- at 99%) as well as the least values of types of errors RMSE and MBE. As an exception, two equations of models failed in this study because of inability to apply to such climate conditions of Baghdad city.</p> Awras H. Ajil Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 533 539 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.9 Influence of ZnO Nanoparticles on Candida albicans of Human Male Pleural Fluid http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1470 <p>The utilization of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide, is of a great importance in the medical field because of its physical and chemical properties as well as its antimicrobial potential effects. In our study, the ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the precipitation method where pH=14. ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Antifungal activity of the ZnO was tested against candida albicans. The results showed that C. albicans (15 samples) became resistant to the fungal activity after testing its sensitivity to several types of fungal antibiotics. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, TEM and AFM showed that this precipitation synthetic method can produce a good quality of ZnO nanoparticles with sizes in the range of nanometer scale. In ZnO NPs (calcined), the inhibition zone diameter of C. albicans was 11 mm at a ZnO NPs concentration of 800 mg/ml, while no inhibition zones were formed at the other concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 10, 50 and 500 mg/ml). Using ZnO NPs (not calcined), the inhibition zone diameter of C. albicans was 24 mm at a concentration of 800 mg/ml, while no inhibition zones were observed at the other concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 10, 50 and 500 mg/ml). In addition, a toxicity test was performed on mice and proved that ZnO NPs are effective against C. albicans with a toxic effect on liver and spleen cells in rats. The aim of this research was to characterize the in vitro activity of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the precipitation method against C. albicans of human male pleural fluid using the well diffusion method as well as their toxic effects on both liver and spleen cells in mice.</p> Anfal J. Katafa Mazin K. Hamid Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 540 549 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.10 Impact of Geological Structures on Rock Slope Stability in The NW Nose (Plunge ) of Surdash Anticline, Sulaimaniya/ NE Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1354 <p>The road network in Surdash anticline is considered as an important road network connecting lower Dukan town with the touristic upper Dukan town. Dukan lake plays an important role in the social and economic activities of Dukan town and the surrounding areas.<br>For assessing the stability of the rock slopes in the area, 9 stations were selected along the upper Dukan road on both sides of Surdash anticline, and their stability was evaluated by the kinematic analysis using DIPS V6.008 software.&nbsp;<br>Kinematic analysis of the studied stations shows thatplanar sliding is possible in stations No. 1, 2, 3 and 8, while wedge sliding is possible in station No. 5, 6, 7 and 9b. The other stations (No. 4and 9a) are stable. Tectonic structures played an extra paradoxical role in the stability of the rock slopes and the type of failure. In most of<br>the selected stations , the geological structure had a negative role, which supported or promoted the failure in the study area. However, in few stations , it had a positive role and converted the slope from unstable to stable conditions. In addition, the presence of incongruent minor syncline folds, especially in the SW-limb of the<br>major anticline, led to the occurring of wedge sliding instead of plane sliding.&nbsp;</p> Summood A. Hussien Manal Sh. Al-Kubaisi Ghafor A. Hamasur Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 550 566 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.11 Comparison between Dipole-dipole and Pole-dipole Arrays in Delineation of Subsurface Weak Zones Using 2D Electrical Imaging Technique in Al- Anbar University, Western Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1403 <p>The presence of natural voids and fractures (weak zones) in subsurface gypsiferous soil and gypsum, within the University of Al-Anbar, western Iraq. It causes a harsher problem for civil engineering projects. Electrical resistivity technique is applied as an economic decipher for investigation underground weak zones. The inverse models of the Dipole-dipole and Pole-dipole arrays with aspacing of 2 m and an n-factor of 6 clearly show that the resistivity contrast between the anomalous part of the weak zone and the background. The maximum thickness and shape are well defined from 2D imaging with Dipole-dipole array, the maximum thickness ranges between 9.5 to 11.5 m. It is concluded that the 2D imaging survey is a useful technique and more effective for determining and mapping subsurface weak zones (voids, fracture and cavities), when taken in consideration using the suitable a-spacing and n-factor for each electrode array, especially with the Dipole-dipole array which provided the best imaging of the<br>subsurface shape of the weak zones.</p> Amina M. Salman Ali M. Abed Jassim M. Thabit Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 567 576 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.12 Origin of Saddle Dolomite in Aqra - Bekhma Formation (Upper Campanain - Mastrichtian), Bekhma Gorge Area, North Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1493 <p>Thirty-four dolomite and dolomitic limestone samples were collected from Aqra – Bekhma (It is difficult to separate the two formations as they are intervening) Formation in Bekhma Gorge area near Shaqlawa in northern Iraq. Alizarin red - s was used to distinguish calcite from dolomite. The saddle dolomite was recognized as a virtually rough crystalline material with milky-white or rosy color when seen in outcrop. In addition, we observed a pearl luster and a characteristically marred crystal building that is, in principle, described as damaged crystal faces with cleavage planes, while microscopically it appeared as a widespread extinction. The crystal faces, although well advanced, are frequently pavement-like facets.</p> Ali Mohand Naji Al-Ani Suhad Khalaf Abdul-Raaziq Al-Nuaimi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 577 583 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.13 Water Quality of Groundwater and Diyala River in Jisr Diyala Area within Baghdad City- Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1570 <p>Groundwater is very important for different uses in the present study area which represents Jisr Diyala, located in southeastern Baghdad and covered with quaternary deposits which include the shallow aquifer in the area. Groundwater and surface water were investigated to determine their suitable uses. The main ion concentrations of the wet period seemed to be lower than those in the dry period. According to TDS values, the water is classified as brackish to salty with a high degree of hardness. Most of water samples were of NaCl type due to pollution with sewage water and rock-water interaction. The results show that the water of the study area is suitable for livestock and irrigation purposes only.</p> Dalal Ahmed Abbas Kamal K. Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 584 590 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.14 Study of T-norms and Quantum Logic Functions on BL-algebra and Their Relationships to the Classical Probability Structures http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1248 <p>This paper is concerned with the study of the T-norms and the quantum logic functions on BL-algebra, respectively, along with their association with the classical probability space. The proposed constructions depend on demonstrating each type of the T-norms with respect to the basic probability of binary operation. On the other hand, we showed each quantum logic function with respect to some binary operations in probability space, such as intersection, union, and symmetric difference. Finally, we demonstrated the main results that explain the relationships among the T-norms and quantum logic functions. In order to show those relations and their related properties, different examples were built.</p> Ahmed AL-Adilee Habeeb Kareem Abdullah Hawraa A. AL-Challabi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 591 599 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.15 Γ-(,δ)-Derivation on Semi-Group Ideals in Prime Γ-Near-Ring http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1423 <p>The main purpose of this paper is to investigate some results. When h is  -( ,δ) – Derivation on prime Γ-near-ring G and K is a nonzero semi-group ideal of G, then G is commutative .</p> Hiba A. Ahmed Abdulrahman H. Majeed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 600 607 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.16 On The Mathematical Model of Two- Prey and Two-Predator Species http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1260 <p>In this work, we study two species of predator with two species of prey model, where the two species of prey live in two diverse habitats and have the ability to group-defense. Only one of the two predators tends to switch between the habitats. The mathematical model has at most 13 possible equilibrium points, one of which is the point of origin, two are axial, tow are interior points and the others are boundary points. The model with , where n is the switching index, is discussed regarding the boundedness of its solutions and the local stability of its equilibrium points. In addition, a basin of attraction was created for the interior point. Finally, three numerical examples were given to support the theoretical results.</p> A. G. Frahan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 608 619 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.17 A Study on n-Derivation in Prime Near – Rings http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1306 <p>The main purpose of this paper is to show that zero symmetric prime near-rings, satisfying certain identities on n-derivations, are commutative rings.</p> Enaam Farhan Adhab Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 620 624 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.18 A Generalized Subclass of Starlike Functions Involving Jackson’s ( p, q)  Derivative http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1321 <p>In this paper, we generalize many earlier differential operators which were studied by other researchers using our differential operator. We also obtain a new subclass of starlike functions to utilize some interesting properties.</p> Abdeljabbar Talal Yousef Zabidin Salleh Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 625 635 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.19 Least Squares Estimations for the General Linear Model Parameters with Epsilon Skew Normal Error Term http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1358 <p>Examination of skewness makes academics more aware of the importance of accurate statistical analysis. Undoubtedly, most phenomena contain a certain percentage of skewness which resulted to the appearance of what is -called "asymmetry" and, consequently, the importance of the skew normal family . The epsilon skew normal distribution ESN (μ, σ, ε) is one of the probability distributions which provide a more flexible model because the skewness parameter provides the possibility to fluctuate from normal to skewed distribution. Theoretically, the estimation of linear regression model parameters, with an average error value that is not zero, is considered a major challenge due to having difficulties, as no explicit formula to calculate these estimates can be obtained. Practically, values for these estimates can be obtained only by referring to numerical methods. This research paper is dedicated to estimate parameters of the Epsilon Skew Normal General Linear Model (ESNGLM) using an adaptive least squares method, as along with the employment of the ordinary least squares method for estimating parameters of the General Linear Model (GLM). In addition, the coefficient of determination was used as a criterion to compare the models’ preference. These methods were applied to real data represented by dollar exchange rates. The Matlab software was applied in this work and the results showed that the ESNGLM represents a satisfactory model.&nbsp;</p> Hussain Karim Nashoor Ebtisam Karim Abdulah Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 636 645 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.20 Duo Gamma Modules and Full Stability http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1364 <p>In this work we study gamma modules which are implying full stability or implying by full stability. A gamma module is fully stable if for each gamma submodule of and each homomorphism of into . Many properties and characterizations of these classes of gamma modules are considered. We extend some results from the module to the gamma module theories.</p> Mehdi S. Abbas Balsam M. Hamad Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 646 651 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.21 Decision Making Methods in Comparative Studies of Complex Economic Processes Management http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1016 <p>In this study different methodological approaches are used and described by many features (indicators) of complex socio-economic process. Outcome of analysis has the most reliable and acceptable representation of the studied process specific to chosen case. In order to solve problems in this area (depending on the situation, case under consideration), methods from two groups are most often used: multidimensional comparative analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis. The first of these cases concern problems at the macro level (socio-economic development, demographic situation, population's living standards, etc.), in which the decisionmaker's participation is relatively small (eg the selection of diagnostic variables or expert assessment). The second of these groups include issues in which the decisionmaker's participation is significant which are subjective to the decisions taken and reflects his or her preferences. Among the decision support methods, one can also distinguish those that have both the characteristics of methods from the area of multidimensional comparative analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis. The article presents the combination of both trends exposing maximum possibilities of using selected methods used in the decision making by Polish schools. The general methodological assumptions, advantages of having approaches discussed (in relation to other known methods) as well as the applied aspects (exemplary applications) also presented.</p> Kesra Nermend Mateusz Piwowarski Mariusz Borawski Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 652 664 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.22 Effect of levels in Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform when design Universal image stego-analytic http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1393 <p>Universal image stego-analytic has become an important issue due to the natural images features curse of dimensionality. Deep neural networks, especially deep convolution networks, have been widely used for the problem of universal image stegoanalytic design. This paper describes the effect of selecting suitable value for number of levels during image pre-processing with Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform. This value may significantly affect the detection accuracy which is obtained to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The proposed system is evaluated using three content-adaptive methods, named Highly Undetetable steGO (HUGO), Wavelet Obtained Weights (WOW) and UNIversal WAvelet Relative Distortion (UNIWARD).<br>The obtained precision 0.98387, 0.96659 and 0.98387 for the three content-adaptive methods, applied on BOSS image dataset, respectively. The obtained results show that number of level equals to 5 outperforms other numbers in terms of detection accuracy. Also it minimizes the ime required for both training and testing phases.</p> Hana Mohsen Halah Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 665 674 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.23 Video Colorization Methods: a Survey http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1179 <p>Nowadays, there are a huge number of video colorization methods. This is because in the gray scale image one value (gray) must be converted into three corresponding values (RGB). In this paper, some of these methods have been presented and discussed. Then, different comparisons have been established between these methods and the results demonstrate the efficiency of each method.</p> Mathel Emaduldeen A-Monem Tareq Zaid Hammood Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 675 686 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.24 Image Classification Schemes Based on Sliced Radial Energy Distribution of DFT and the Statistical Moments of Haar Wavelet http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1652 <p>Texture recognition is used in various pattern recognition applications and texture classification that possess a characteristic appearance. This research paper aims to provide an improved scheme to provide enhanced classification decisions and to decrease processing time significantly. This research studied the discriminating characteristics of textures by extracting them from various texture images using discrete Haar transform (DHT) and discrete Fourier transform DFT. Two sets of features are proposed; the first set was extracted using the traditional DFT, while the second used DHT. The features from the Fourier domain are calculated using the radial distribution of spectra, while for those extracted from Haar Wavelet the statistical distribution of various relative moments was adopted. Four types of Euclidean distance metrics were used for classification decision<br>purposes. The considered method was applied on 475 classes of textures belonged to 32 sets from Salzburg Texture Image Database, each set holding 16 images per class, so the a total of 7600 images were tested. Each image was separated into seven bands of color component (i.e., red, green, blue, and gray….). Concepts of average and standard deviation were calculated to determine the inter/intra scatter analysis for each feature to find out the best discriminating features that can be used.<br>The final result of DHT was 99.98 for the testing sets and 99.71 for the training sets, while the final result of DFT was 98.63 for the testing sets and 93.74 for the training sets.</p> Hashim Abbas Loay E. George Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-03-28 2020-03-28 687 712 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.3.25