Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 A physiological Explanation of Drought Effect on Flag-Leaf Specific Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Barley <p>This study was carried out in Kalar technical institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University in Garmian region, Iraq during 2016-17 and 2017-18 seasons. Five hybrid genotypes of barley were tested under drought and irrigated conditions to detect the flag-leaf specific weight, chlorophyll content index (SPAD; The Soil Plant Analysis Development chlorophyll meter) and the period from anthesis to physiological maturity. Across both years 2016-17 and 2017-18, there was no effect of drought on flag-leaf specific weight, however, SPAD was reduced by 4.77 and the period between anthesis and maturity was shortened by almost two days. Genotype 3//14 scored the highest values of flag-leaf specific weight (7.765 mg cm<sup>-2</sup>)and SPAD (25.56), and stayed green for the longest period (28.69 days) (P=0.05), showing its ability to be more tolerant to moisture reductionas compared to the other tested genotypes. In order to explain the physiological mechanisms among the assessed traits under both irrigated and drought conditions, linear regression analysis was applied for both seasons and averaged over seasons. A positive linear relationship was shownbetween flag-leaf specific weight and SPAD under both irrigated (R<sup>2</sup>=0.83; P=0.03) and drought (R<sup>2</sup>=0.76; P=0.05) conditions, explaining the high flag-leaf chlorophyll content resulting from high specific weight of leaves. The high flag-leaf specific weight was also associated with longer periods for leaves to stay-green after anthesis, under both irrigated (R<sup>2</sup>=0.91; P=0.01) and drought (R<sup>2</sup>=0.79; P=0.04) conditions, which provides a great chance to accumulate more resources of carbohydrates and protein in the grain and, consequently,a higher throughput of yield.</p> Yadgar Ali Mahmood Masood Saber Mohammed Halgurd Nasraden Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2531 2539 Histological Changes in Kidney and Spleen of Albino Mice Treated with Brake Pad Particles <p>In this study, the consequences of treatment with brake pad particles on kidney and spleen were evaluatedthrough microscopic anatomy sections for 60 male albino mice. The animals were divided into six groups, the first three groups (A,B,C)&nbsp; were exposed to brake pad particles depending on periods of exposure (4, 8, and 12weeks, respectively), while the other three groups were control groups,designated asF, which were exposed to laboratory fresh air only. A special locally-designed inhalation chamber was used to expose the animals. The exposure dose to brake pad particles (total suspended particles) was 2.228 µg/m³ for 30 min/day, 5 days/week,4, 8 and 12 weeks.The statistical analysis showed that the weights of organs for both kidney and spleen of treated mice had highly significant differences (P&lt; 0.01) compared with control groups.The histological sections examination of the kidney, when compared with the control group, showed subcapsular tubular vascular degeneration and mild cortical focal hemorrhage in group A that was exposedto brake pads particlesfor 4 weeks. In group B, the exposure for 8 weeks resulted in cortical vascular degeneration, cortico-medullary vascular congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, and thickening of interstitial tissue.Other effects included marked dilation of collecting ducts with tubular vascular degeneration, necrosis, glomerular degeneration and deterioration, and cast formation. Group C, exposed for 12 weeks , showed similar changes of the kidney to those of group B. As related to spleen sections,they demonstrated mild subcapsular vascular degeneration of lymphocytes in group A,while the exposure in group Bresulted in moderate amyloid deposits with hemosiderosis, along withmild subcapsular vascular degeneration of lymphocyteswithin the red pulp. In group C, which was treated for 12 months, severe splenomegaly with advanced secondary splenic amyloidosis was also observed within the red pulp.It was characterized by marked deposited acellular and amorphous pinkish homogenous material within red pulp.The continuous exposure to brake pad particles causes harmful effectson the tissues ofessential body organs in human health.These particles should be thought-about as a sort of additional air pollutants in several cities of Iraqin the future.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nada Abdulrahman F. Al-Easawi Hajer Qais Ghaidan Shahad Mansour Salman Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2540 2549 Water quality assessment of Rawanduz River and Gali Ali Beg stream by applied CCME WQI with survey aquatic insects (Ephemeroptera) <p>The population of Ephemeroptera was studied in three selected stations of Rawanduz River (Gali Ali Beg water fall, Rawanduz River and after the junction of these two waters) during the three seasons of spring, summer and autumn in 2016. In addition,sixteen physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, turbidity, DO, BOD<sub>5</sub>, NO<sub>3</sub>, TDN, TDP, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, Hardness, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, Na% and SAR) of water in these stations were estimated and used to calculate the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). Eleven species of aquatic insects were identified,which belong to four families of the order Ephemeroptera. Three of the studied species are described for the first time. According to water quality index, the water was ranked as poor for drinking and marginal for irrigation purposes.</p> Nihal Suhail Hanna Yahya Ahmed Shekha Luay Abdul-Qader Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2550 2560 Investigation the potential role of some medicinal plants extracts in regulating serum lipid profile in female albino rats <p>Strong evidence showed that many medicinal plants have the potential to reduce hyperlipidemia disease. The aim of this study was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extracts of <em>Fucus vesiculosus, Coleus forskohlii, Curcuma longa </em>L.,<em> Rosmarinus officinalis </em>L., <em>Camellia sinensis</em> L. and <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L. on lipid profile in serum taken from the blood of rats. Fifty-seven female albino rats were divided into 19 groups, each with three rats, that were treated orally with an aqueous plant extract in three different doses, except the control group which was treated with normal saline only. The chemical compositions of these extracts were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).The results showed that the dose of 5 mg/kg of<em>Curcuma longa</em> was the powerful extract which reduced levels of cholesterol (CHO) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in serum rats' blood by 31 and 55%, respectively, compared with the control treatment. While, the effective extract to reduce triglycerides (TG) level was that of<em>Fucus vesiculosus</em>(50mg/kg) which reduced TG by 38% compared with the control. Also, <em>Melissa officinalis</em>(50 mg/kg ) extract reduced 30% of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) level as compared to the control treatment. In addition,<em> Coleus forskohlii</em>(100 mg/kg) extract increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level by 115% after being orally given to rats for four weeks. The results of the study indicated significant differences among the concentrationsof the secondary compoundswithin their extracts, which maybe responsible for the observed variations of hypolipidemic activity for each extract. Based on these results, further investigation should target understanding the mechanismsby which these plants can be used as food additives and as dietary supplement.</p> Shahad Imad Hameed Ayyad W. Al-Shahwany Sabah Jawad Salih Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2561 2571 Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Euphrates River, Iraq <p>The monitoring of lotic ecosystems is important for environmental health after war crisis. This study aimed to detect the fate of the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) as priority pollutants in the water and sediment of Al-Hussainya River in Karbala Province. The results indicated that the concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.24–58.72 ηg.L<sup>-1</sup> for each of the benzo(a) pyrene and benzo(g, h, i)perylene. The concentrations in sediment samples have been observed to be in a range of 0.36–119.06 μg.g<sup>-1</sup> for naphthalene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene. Benzo(g,h,i)perylene recorded the highest concentrations in each of water and sediment samples as compared with the other compounds. The ratios of the specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. These ratios reflected pyrogenic and petrogenic origins in both water and sediments.</p> Fikrat M. Hassan Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Alobaidy Jasim M. Salman Sara H. Abdulameer Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2572 2582 Antibacterial activity of Some mouthwash Solutions against Staphylococcus lentus Isolated from Mouth Infections <p>A total of nine swab samples were collected from inflamed teeth and gingiva of human’soral cavity from a dentist clinic in Baghdad. All specimens were cultured in Mitis Salivarius agar medium and the isolated bacterial pure colonies werethen identified by using VITEK2. Three samples were diagnosed and identified as Staphylococcus lentus. One of the three isolates which showed a distinctive heavy growth on the media was selected for further analysis in this study. Paper disk diffusion method was used to detect the antibacterial activityof three of mouthwash solutions (Zak, Colgate and Listerine). The results showed that “Colgate” was the most active solution with antibacterial activity compared with the other two solutions.</p> Sameer Abdulameer Alash Maoj Qassim Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2583 2589 The prevalence of anemia among children infected with Entamoeba histolytica in Baghdad <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The relation between <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> and anemia has lately had much attention. The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlation between anemia and parasitic intestinal infection with <em>E.histolytica</em> in children from Baghdad-Iraq. This study was conducted from October 2018 to April 2019 in different hospitals, primary health care centers, and primary schools. Eighty-one children participated in this study and their ages were between 1 and 12 years. The participants were divided into two groups based on their general microscopic stool examination. The first group was diagnosed as <em>E.histolytica</em> infected group (n=47), while no pathogens were detected in the stool samples of the second group which was considered as a healthy control (n=34). Blood samples were taken from all subjects and tested for haemoglobin level, serum ferritin, serum iron, total binding iron capacity (TBIC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Nutritional status was also evaluated for all children aged ≥5 years old. Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was higher in children infected with <em>E.histolytica</em> compared with the control subjects. Anemia was largely reported among children aged 1-3 years for both <em>E.histolytica</em> infected children and control subjects. The results also illustrated that both haemoglobin and iron levels were significantly (p˂0.05) lower in <em>E.histolytica</em> infected children compared with control subjects, while non-significant differences (p˃0.05) were observed in the level of ferritin between <em>E.histolytica</em> infected children and control subjects, although the ferritin was lower in <em>E.hisolytica</em> infected group. The results showed that both gender and age are significantly related to low serum iron levels in both infected and control groups.&nbsp; Significant relationshipswere also noticed between each of the anemia types and the nutritional status with the <em>E.histolytca</em> infection. Microcytic anemia as well as high records of severe malnutrition were observed in the majority of <em>E. histolytica</em> infected children</p> <p>These findings indicate that anemia is more expected to be present in children infected with <em>E.histolytica</em>. Therefore, efforts should be focused on health education of populations at high risk of both anemia and<em> E.histolytica</em>.</p> Israa Naif Zeki Harith Saeed Al-Warid Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2590 2599 Prevalence of hyperandrogenism in Iraqi women with polycystic ovary syndrome <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a mainly common endocrine disorder. Hyperandrogenism is the major standard in the diagnosisof PCOS development.Eighty women diagnosed with PCOS and twenty healthy women(aged 20-40 years)were enrolled in this study which was conducted at the infertility clinic of Kamal AL-Samaraay Hospital/ Baghdad. The diagnosis of PCOS was made according to the Rotterdam criteria. Body mass index (BMI, Kg/m<sup>2</sup>)was calculated by a specific formula. History of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, acne, and alopecia was taken. Hormone levels in serum, namely luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were measured in all patients and control subjects.There was a statistically significant difference (P &lt;0.05) in the BMI between the PCOS and control women.Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was much higher in PCOS women than in their matching control. The serum levels of LH, FSH, and testosterone were significantly different (P &lt;0.05) in PCOS as compared to healthy women. Clinical hyperandrogenism (<a href=""><u>hirsutism</u></a> and alopecia) were present in most of PCOS women, while acne wasa less useful clinical sign of hyperandrogenism.Inaddition, the prevalence of <a href=""><u>hirsutism</u></a> and alopecia was&nbsp; increased in obese&nbsp; when compared with&nbsp; overweight and lean PCOS women.</p> Yasmin L. Alsaadi Ban Jasim Mohamad Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2600 2608 Immunocytochemical assessment of FKBP51 and Glucocorticoid receptor localization in asthmatic patients <p>Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting 5% of the world population. FKBP51 is an important immunophilin modular protein of the glucocorticoid receptor (GC).</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels and immunocytochemical distribution of FKBP51 and GR in lymphocyte cells of asthmatic patients, by use of immunocytochemistry method, and to assesslevels ofstress hormones (cortisol and ACTH) by radioimmuniassay (RIA).</p> <p>The results showed significantly increased nuclear localization and decreasedcytoplasmic distribution of FKBP51, while they showed a significant increase in nuclear localization and a non-significant decrease in cytoplasmic distribution of GRin asthmatic patients(P&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Cortisol and ACTH levels were also measured and showedinsignificant increases(P&lt;0.05)in steroid treated (338.85 ±139.5 mMol/L, 35.05±3.77 ng/ml, respectively)and non steroid treated asthmatics(280.5 ± 74.6 mMol/L, 32.0±6.43 ng/ml, respectively)as compared with the control group (234.33±29.13 mMol/L, 29.0±7.02 ng/ml, respectively).</p> Sura F. Alsaffar Jabbar H. Yenzeel Haider Faisal Ghazi Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2609 2617 Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the 16S sequence alignment for Klebsiella spp. isolated from different sources <p>16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences used to study bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy have been by far the most common housekeeping genetic marker utilized for identification and ancestor determination. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Iraq.</p> <p>Fifty <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. isolates were isolated from clinical and environmental sources. Twenty-five isolates were collected from a fresh vegetable (<em>Apium graveolens</em>) and 25 from clinical samples (sputum, wound swab, urine). Enteric bacteria were isolated on selective and differential media and identified by an automatic identification system, vitek-2. The total DNA was extracted and PCR amplified for selected isolates. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by using the universal primer 27F (5'- AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG- 3') and 1492R (5'- GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT- 3’). The 16SrRNA gene sequence was analysed among some local isolates, and the results were compared with the standard data of similar registered strains in NCBI<strong>. </strong>The most common species of <em>Klebsiella </em>was <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae (Kpp), </em>followed by <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae ozaenae (Kpo) and Klebsiella oxytoca</em> (Ko). The results of the identification of species and sub species by using the &nbsp;biochemical test (vitek-2) were more precise than those obtained by the use of the universal primer.Phylogenetic tree strategies have clearly indicated a relatively close similarity amongst all analysed <em>Klebsiella</em> isolates and revealed the intra-species genetic distance between the individual isolates of the <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. In conclusion, our results revealed the main advantage of using universal primers for the identification of <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. and their root from nature.</p> Israa AJ. Ibrahim Tuqa A. Kareem Yaseen M. Azeez Hawraa K. Falhi Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2618 2628 Determination of Lead Levels in Fuel Used for Vehicles in Baghdad City <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The wide use of lead compounds as an engine anti-knock reflects conversely on all components of the ecosystem. This study aimed to detect the concentration of lead in various types of gasoline and gas oil that are highly consumed by vehicles. Eight fuel samples were collected from different feul stations distributed in different districts of Baghdad city. These included two gas oil (diesel) stations and three stations for each type of gasoline (leaded and unleaded). Lead was extracted by the modified chemical method, and then flame atomic absorption technique was applied to assay its concentrations. The results indicated that lead levels were within permitted limits (150 mg Lead L<sup>-1</sup>) recommended by the international agencies. The highest lead mean concentration was 105 mg/L, recorded in Latifiya leaded gasoline, whereas the lowest mean was 3.1mg/L in unleaded gasoline imported from the United Arab Emirate. As for gas oil, lead concentration occurred within a mean of 1.85-2.05 mg/L. The influence of some leaded gasoline improvements, octane booster and octane plus, was estimated, which revealed sharp declines in lead mean concentrationsto values of 1.05 and 5.2 mg/L for Latifiya and Rusafa gasoline, respectively. Furthermore, the daily lead emission was estimated for the registered vehicles in Baghdad and revealed a high concentration of 1837.7 µg lead m<sup>-3</sup> for private cars. This study proposes avoiding the addition of lead compounds to fuel, in order to reduce its adverse effects on general health, and raising the awareness of society to this problem.</p> Hassanein A. Hassoon Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2629 2635 Ionizing Radiation Effect and DNA damage in the workers of Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Site <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), also called comet assay, is a rapid and sensitive technique used to analyse DNA Fragmentation Index(DFI). This study aimed to evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes due to ionizing radiation in workers of Al-Tuwaitha nuclear site, which has been used for nuclear activities and contains a potentially significant amount of radioactive waste.The workers in this site are vulnerable to pollution due to a highly polluted environment of ionizing radiation. Blood samples were collected from 36 workerswho were divided into two groups;8 workers without protection and 28workers with protection, in addition to 30 control subjects.Alkaline comet assay was applied for analysis and the results indicated significantly higher DNA damage in the workers without protection as compared with the workers with protection and control groups.The result also showed significant differences between the workers with protection and control groups.</p> Lina S. Al-Jameel Rasha S. Ahmed Haidar A. Shamran Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2636 2641 Genetic Polymorphisms rs643627 in Serotonin Receptor Gene (5-HTR2A) with Schizophrenia <p>Schizophrenia(SCZ) is oneof the most destructive and complicated chronic diseases of the human nervous system. Serotonin receptors have been involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Fortyschizophrenia subjects (14females and 26 males) with an age range of 23– 57 years were enrolled, in addition to twenty healthy control subjects (10female and 10 male) with an age range of 19-44 years.</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namelyrs643627 in <em>HTR2A</em>gene,inIraqi patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls, along with the association between this SNP and the incidence of schizophrenia.</p> <p>The genetic variantrs643627 within the intron region of 5-<em>HTR2A</em>gene was genotyped by Real Time –PCR.</p> <p>The results showed that differences in the demographic data of gender and age between schizophrenia subjects and controls were statically non-significant. Also, the genotype frequencies distribution of rs643627 polymorphism showed no deviation from Hardy–Weinbergequilibrium in both groups (patients and controls). In addition,differences in the genotypes(AA, AG, and GG) and allele frequencies of<em> 5-HTR2A</em> were statically non-significant between SCZ patients and controls. However,the present study results demonstrated an association between rs643627 polymorphism of <em>5-HT2A</em>geneand age and gender in schizophrenia patients group.</p> Noor K. Khudhiar Asmaa M. Saud Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2642 2648 Plasma diagnostic of gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure <p>A gliding arc discharge (GAD) with a water spray system was constructed. A non-thermal plasma, generated between two V shaped electrodes in an ambient argon driven by 100 Hz AC voltage, was investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with different gas flow rates (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 , 2.5 , 3&nbsp; 1/min). Boltzmann plot method was used to calculate electron temperature (T<sub>e</sub>) and electron density (n<sub>e</sub>). The electrodes design was spectrally recognized and its T<sub>e</sub> value was about 0.588-0.863 eV, while the n<sub>e </sub>value of 6.875×10<sup>17</sup>-10.938<strong>×</strong>10<sup>17</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup>. The results of the plasma diagnostics generated by gliding arc showed that increasing gas flow rates was associated with decreased electron temperature (T<sub>e</sub>), Debye length, and Debye Number, along with decreased electron density (n<sub>e</sub>) and plasma frequency.&nbsp;</p> T. A. Hameed S. J. Kadhem Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2649 2655 Reservoir units of Mishrif Formation in Majnoon Oil field, Southern Iraq <p>The reservoir units of Mishrif Formation in Majnoon oil field were studied by using available wireline logs (gamma ray, porosity and resistivity) and facies that derived from core and cutting samples for three wells including Mj-1, Mj-15, and Mj-20. The reservoir properties were determined and interpreted by using IP software. The results showed that unit D have the best reservoir properties due to high effective porosity, low water saturation and very low volume of shale. Furthermore, a large part of this unit was deposited in shoal environment. The other reservoir units are then graded in reservoir properties including units B, A, F &amp; E respectively, except unit C, which is considered as a cap unit, because it consists of restricted marine facies so that; it has high volume of shale and water saturation and very low effective porosity.</p> Layla khudhur Abbas Thamar Abdullah Mahdi Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2656 2663 Linear Noise Removal Using Tau-P Transformation on 3D Seismic Data of Al-Samawah Area - South West of Iraq <p>Tau-P linear noise attenuation filter (TPLNA) was applied on the 3D seismic data of Al-Samawah area south west of Iraq with the aim of attenuating linear noise. TPLNA transforms the data from time domain to tau-p domain in order to increase signal to noise ratio. Applying TPLNA produced very good results considering the 3D data that usually have a large amount of linear noise from different sources and in different azimuths and directions. This processing is very important in later interpretation due to the fact that the signal was covered by different kinds of noise in which the linear noise take a large part.</p> Ahmed Hussein Ali Ali M. Al-Rahim Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2664 2671 Evaluation of the Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater and its Suitability for Desalination to Product Potable Water in Tolul Al-Baj, Salahaldin, Iraq <p>The study area, Tlul Al-Baj, suffers from a shortage of fresh water and most people depend on groundwater for different uses (drinking, domestic, irrigation, etc.).</p> <p>The present research aims to select the most suitable wells for desalination and production of potable water in Tlul Al-Baj area.</p> <p>Twenty-two samples of groundwater were collected to evaluate the hydrochemical properties of groundwater in the shallow aquifer in the area and to determine their suitability for desalination purposes. The study included measuring the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater, such as total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids(TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium ratio (Na%), turbidity (Tur), pH…etc. Chemical analyses for the main components of water samples were also conducted, including cations such as sodium (Na<sup>+)</sup>, potassium (K<sup>+)</sup>, calcium (Ca<sup>++)</sup>, and magnesium (Mg<sup>++)</sup>, as well as anions such as chloride (Cl)<sup>-</sup>, sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>=</sup>), bicarbonates (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>), and nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>). In addition, concentrations of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni),cobalt (CO), chromium(Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were determined.</p> <p>The results of the physical and chemical analyses for the groundwater of the study area were compared with the international and local standards to determine their suitability for drinking uses and&nbsp; to select the most suitable wells for the production of drinking water by desalination. The results indicated that the most suitable wells for desalination were wells numbered 4, 8, 9, 17, and 19.</p> Ehab Mohammad Amen Ektifa Taha A. Mayada Ahmed A. Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2672 2684 On A Certain Class of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions Defined by Fractional Calculus Operator <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this work, we study a new class of meromorphicmultivalent functions, defined by fractional differ-integral operator.We obtain some geometricproperties, such ascoefficient inequality, growth and distortion bounds, convolution properties, integral representation, radii of starlikeness, convexity, extreme pointsproperties, weighted mean and arithmetic meanproperties.</p> Adnan Aziz Hussein Kassim Abdul Hameed Jassim Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2685 2696 Cubic Trigonometric Spline for Solving Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equations <p>In this paper, cubic trigonometric spline is used to solve nonlinear Volterra integral equations of second kind. Examples are illustrated to show the presented method’s efficiency and convenience.</p> Nabaa N. Hasan Majid R. Nasif Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2697 2705 ET-Coessential and ET-Coclosed submodules <p>Let M be an R-module, where R be a commutative;ring with identity. In this paper, we defined a new kind of submodules, namely; ET-coessential and ET-Coclosed submodules of M. Let T be a submodule of M. Let K &nbsp;H &nbsp;M, K&nbsp; is called&nbsp; ET-Coessential of H in M (K⊆<strong><sub>ET.ce</sub></strong> H), if&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;. A submodule H is called ET- coclosed in M of H has no proper coessential submodule in M, we denote by&nbsp; (K⊆<strong><sub></sub></strong> H) , that is, K⊆<strong><sub>ET.ce</sub></strong> H implies that&nbsp;&nbsp; K = H. In our work, we introduce;some properties of ET-coessential and ET-coclosed submodules of M.</p> Firas sh. Fandi Sahira M. Yaseen Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2706 2710 On Lie Structure in Semiprime Inverse Semirings <p>In this paper we introduce the definition of&nbsp; Lie ideal on inverse semiring and we generalize some results of Herstein about Lie structure of an associative rings to inverse semirings.</p> Rawnaq KH. Ibraheem Abdulrahman H. Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2711 2718 A Study of Stability of First-Order Delay Differential Equations Using Fixed Point Theorem Banach <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper we investigate the stability and asymptotic stability of the zero solution for the first order delay differential equation</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; where the delay is variable and by using Banach fixed point theorem. We give new conditions to ensure the stability and asymptotic stability of the zero solution of this equation.</p> Zaid A.A. Mahdi Monje Buthainah A.A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2719 2724 Semi-T-maximal sumodules <p>Let &nbsp;be a commutative ring with identity and &nbsp;be an -module. In this work, we present the concept of semi--maximal sumodule as a generalization of -maximal submodule.</p> <p>We present that a submodule &nbsp;of an -module &nbsp;is a semi--maximal (sortly --max) submodule if &nbsp;is a semisimple -module (where &nbsp;is a submodule of ). We &nbsp;investegate some properties of these kinds of modules.</p> Inaam M. A. Hadi Alaa A. Elewi Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2725 2731 Calculating the variations of sunrise, sunset and day length times for Baghdad city.With comparison to different regions of the world in year 2019 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The sunrise, sunset, and day length times for Baghdad (Latitude =33.34º N, Longitude =44.43º E) were calculated with high accuracy on a daily basis during 2019. The results showed that the earliest time of sunrise in Baghdad was at 4<sup>h</sup>: 53<sup>m</sup> from 5 Jun. to 20 Jun while the latest was at 7<sup>h</sup>: 07<sup>m</sup> from 5 Jan. to 11 Jan. The earliest time of sunset in Baghdad was at16<sup> h</sup>: 55<sup>m</sup> from 30 Nov. to 10 Dec. whereas the latest was at 19<sup>h</sup>: 16<sup>m</sup> from 25 Jun. to 5 Jul. The minimum period of day length in Baghdad was 9<sup>h</sup>: 57<sup>m</sup>) in 17 Dec. whereas the maximum period was 14<sup>h</sup>: 22<sup>m</sup>) in 20 Jun. Day length was calculated and compared among regions of different latitudes(0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 north).</p> Fouad M. Abdulla Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2732 2741 Estimation of Average of Global Solar Radiation Depending on Sunshine Duration Hours for Iraqi Metrological Stations <p>In this study, the global solar radiation for the locations of fourteen Iraqi metrological stations was studied and calculated. This was performed because most of the Iraqi stations lack solar radiation measuring devices. The equation postulated by Angström (1924) and modified by Prescott (1940) was utilized for the estimation of the solar radiation for the fourteen Iraqi metrological stations depending on sunshine duration measurements of these stations. Empirical constants of Angstrom-Prescott equation that are adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used for obtaining the results. The utilized data reported in this study were taken from the Republic of Iraq Meteorological Office (RIMO). The calculations and diagrams were carried out and the results were obtained by making advantage of Excel's program capabilities.</p> Mertah naji abd Gheidaa Sabeeh Al-Hassany Copyright (c) 2019 Iraqi Journal of Science 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2742 2752