Iraqi Journal of Science http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 Fexofenadine Adsorption by Activated Charcoal Impregnated with Hydrogen Peroxide http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1561 <p>The adsorption of fexofenadine drug by activated charcoal powder impregnated with hydrogen peroxide (IAC) to improve its surface properties was investigated. The investigation also aimed to assess the effect of the repeated dose in increasing the amount of the drug adsorbed. The powder activated charcoal was impregnated with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> 3%. The effects of pH of the solution, concentration of the drug and time of the reaction parameters were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The IAC was brought in contact with the drug solution in different pH (2, 4, 7 and 9), drug concentrations (30, 60, 90 and 120 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>) and time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). After each experiment, a repeated dose of IAC was introduced into the solution and the adsorption process was repeated. The results showed that the amounts of the drug adsorbed were decreased with increasing the pH and increased with increasing the concentration of solution and time of contact. The adsorption capacity was enhanced to about 70% after the addition of the repeated dose. The study showed a spectrum displacement toward the blue region (blue shift) for the drug supernatant in all experiment parameters, which was almost doubled when a repeated dose was added.</p> Jasim Humadi Hassen Mohammad Singar Ferhan Abdalkareem Hamad Ayfan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1245 1252 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.1 In Vitro Assessment of the Antioxidant and Antitumor Potentials of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1871 <p>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using the cell free supernatant of putative probiotic <em>Lactobacillus paracasei</em> A26. Several biological activities of biogenic AgNPs were investigated in respect to <em>in vitro</em> anti-oxidant and anti-tumor potentials.&nbsp; Anti-oxidant potentials were screened in terms of free radical scavenging activity against two free radicals, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and resazurin dye. AgNPs exhibited a potent scavenging activity against resazurin dye (91±0.046%) with an EC<sub>50</sub> concentration of 146.823 µg/ml, while scavenging of DPPH was significantly (P≤0.05) reduced to 72.330±0.114% using a higher EC<sub>50</sub> concentration of 176.12 µg/ml. The anti-tumor potentials of biogenic AgNPs were studied in relation to the cytotoxicity against two human breast cancer cell lines (CAL-51 and MCF7), using crystal violet dye assay.&nbsp; The viability of AgNPs-treated cancerous cells was significantly decreased in a time- and concentration manner, as compared to insignificant cytotoxic effects against the normal cell line. However, the anti-proliferative activity of AgNPs did not exceed the value of 63.85±0.019% in both cancer cell lines. CAL-51 cells were the most sensitive to the introduced AgNPs, with a maximum decrease in viability of 49.889±0.021% being reached using an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 98.65µg/ml for 48h exposure time. The inhibition percentage was increased to 60.13±0.005% when the used IC<sub>50</sub> value was significantly declined to 40.73µg/ml with an exposure time expanded to 72h.&nbsp; MCF7 cells showed lower sensitivity than CAL-51 cells, but with a similar inhibition trend of 59.523±0.01% with an IC<sub>50</sub> concentration of 66.54 µg/ml for 48h which was increased to 63.857±0.019% when the IC<sub>50</sub> was reduced to 62.63 µg/ml and the exposure time expanded to 72h. The morphological changes of AgNPs-treated cells were apparent at 72h exposure time, with cells showing apoptotic-like features such as shrinkage and losing of regular fusiform shape. Moreover, cells became detached to surfaces and from each other.</p> A. H. Al-basheer S. A. Al-wandawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1253 1264 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.2 Application of Probit Analysis in Studying the Allelopathy Phenomenon http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/889 Awadallah Belal Dafaallah Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1265 1274 Histological Effect of Aspirin on the Stomach of Male Albino Swiss Mice (Mus musculus) http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2086 <p>The present study aimed to determine the impacts of Aspirin drug on the stomach of albino Swiss mice. The study sample included 10 male mice divided into 2 groups. The first group was orally administered with 0.1 mL of 0.75 mg/kg aspirin once daily, whereas the second group, the control, was treated with similar doses of distilled water. Following 60 days of successive treatment, a number of parameters was studied including difference in body weight and histopathological changes in the&nbsp; stomach as diagnosed after histological preparation. The results showed a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in body weight average of the treated mice compared with the control group. The results also revealed the occurrence of several histopathological changes in the stomach&nbsp;&nbsp; of treated animals, including raptures in the epithelium lining, congestion in the muscular layer, and vasodilation. In addition, alterations such as hemorrhage, pyknosis in muscle cells, sloughing of the lining of the muscular layer, and external bleeding were observed. It can be concluded from these results that orally administered aspirin exerts negative effects on the stomach in mice.</p> Zainab Karim Al-Timimi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1275 1281 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.4 Evaluation of the Activity of Essential Oil and Hydrosol from Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Against Some Bacterial Species http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2198 <p>Nowadays, the use of medicinal plants is being practiced at a wide range as a result of antibiotics resistant for the vast majority of microorganisms. <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> essential oil and hydrosol were used in this study against planktonic forms and biofilms of some species of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of this plant were detected using the microtiter plate and MIC approaches. The results proposed that the oil and hydrosol preparations have antibacterial activities against planktonic cells in different concentrations depending on the type of isolate. For antibiofilm activity, the results showed that<em> E. camaldulensis</em> oil was highly effective against bacterial biofilms of different bacterial species in comparison with the hydrosol. In conclusions, the studied plant can be used as an alternative treatment against bacterial biofilms that cause chronic infections for humans and animals.&nbsp;</p> Zainab Zamil Khalaf Lamiaa Abdul Zahra Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1282 1288 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.5 Green Synthesis Concept of Nanoparticles From Environmental Bacteria and Their Effects on Pathogenic Bacteria http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2202 <p>Soil bacteria play an interesting role in the reduction of Ag<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;ions and the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which may be a good source for nanoparticles and play a major role in nanotechnology applications. The concept of this project was to study the effects of these environmentally produced nanoparticles on the growth of some pathogenic bacteria. The environmental bacteria were isolated from soil, purified on broth cultures, and centrifuged, while the supernatant was extracted to detect its ability to convert silver nitrate to nanoparticles. The AgNPs was detected by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), while Granularity Cumulating Distribution (GCD) was employed to estimate the AgNPs sizes. The results showed the synthesis of AgNPs with sizes of 63.50nm and 45.81nm from the extracts of environmental <em>Pseudomonas sp.</em> and <em>Enterobacter</em>, respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from the extracts of all environmental bacteria showed antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria (Gram positive and Negative) with variable inhibition zones. In conclusion, environmental bacteria can be a cheap source of nanoparticles.</p> Ghada Mohammed Saleh Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1289 1297 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.6 Preparation and Characterization of Polymer Blends/ Kaolinite Nanoclay http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1313 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this research, we prepared a polymer blend of polyvinylalcohol (PVA)/carrageenan/kaolinite by means of the solution cast approach. The composition of the blend was PVA in 1 gm by weight with 0.2 gm carrageenan as a plasticizer. The ratio of nanoclay varied between 1 and 5 wt%. Different properties were investigated in this study such as water vapor permeability, hardness, tear strength, color stability, thermal stability, and antibacterial activity. Water vapor permeability was decreased with increasing the ratio of nanoclay, while the values of hardness, tear strength, color stability, and thermal stability were increased. Also, the antibacterial activity examination with two types of bacteria, <em>e.g. </em>Gram positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) and Gram negative (<em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>), showed inhibition zone diameter which was increased with increasing nanoclay ratio. Moreover, it was found that nanoclay has the ability to kill both Gram positive and negative kinds of bacteria. It was found that the preparation of such films is suitable for food packaging.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Seenaa I. Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1298 1306 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.7 Influence of Laser Energy and Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Films Prepared by Laser Induced Plasma http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1602 <p>The current study was achieved on the effects of laser energy and annealing temperature on x-ray structural and optical properties, such as the UV-Visible spectra of cadmium sulfide (CdS). The films were prepared using pules laser deposition technique (PLD) under vacuum at a pressure of 2.5×10<sup>-2</sup> mbar with different laser energies (500-800 mJ) and annealing at a temperature of 473K. X-ray diffraction patterns and intensity curves for the CdS showed that the formation of CdS multi-crystallization films at all laser energies. The optical properties of the films were studied and the variables affecting them were investigated in relation to laser energy and changes in temperature.</p> Wadaa S. Hussein Ala' Fadhil Ahmed Kadhim A. Aadim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1307 1312 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.8 Green Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Using Ascorbic Acid http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1618 <p>A green and low-cost method was used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by chemical exfoliation of graphite powder by modified Hummers method, followed by reduction using ascorbic acid. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the structure and morphology of the synthesized materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used to identify the formation of the GO and rGO</p> Hayder A Hessain J. J. Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1313 1319 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.9 The Performance of Plasmonic Gold and Silver Nanoparticle-Based SERS Sensors http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2091 <p>The influence of different types of plasmonic gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles as well as aging on the performance of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) sensors were studied. The average diameters of Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were about 23 nm and 15 nm, respectively, with a number of laser pulses of about 200. plasmonic nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation process in distilled water using a fixed energy laser fluence of about 14 J/cm<sup>2</sup> of Nd-YAG laser, with 1060 nm wavelength and 1 Hz pulse repetition rate. The SERS sensor was carried out by quick drop casting process of plasmonicplasmonic nanoparticles on glass substrates. The morphological aspects and the performance of SERS sensors were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. All the results indicated the significant dependence of the performance of the sensor on the types of the plasmonic nanoparticles . The obtained Raman signal intensity of Ag-NPs was about 10<sup>5</sup>a.u. compared with 10<sup>3</sup>a.u. for Au-NPs. While, the stability of Au-NPs was much higher than that of Ag-NPs based on SERS sensors due to the normal oxidation process of Ag-NPs.</p> Alwan M. Alwan Mohammed S. Mohammed Russul M. Shehab Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1320 1327 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.10 Geophysical and Petrographical Study of Apatapiti Charnockitic Rock, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1285 <p>Geophysical and petrographic evaluation of the earth’s subsurface is of vital concern, especially prior to geotechnical and hydrogeology works. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) of Ire-Akari Estate of Apatapiti Community in Akure South was carried out to assess the effects of the petrographic properties of charnockitic rocks on the geotechnical and hydrogeologic systems. The three curve types identified within the study area are AA, KH and HA, with a predominance of KH curve type, which suggests that the predominant geologic sequence comprising the topsoil has a clayey content alternating with laterite. This is underlain by weathered layer and fresh bedrock. Petrographic analyses revealed the presence of plagioclase (Albite-Anorthite), hypersthene, biotite, quartz, hornblende, microcline, pyroxene and dark-coloured minerals, with an average modal composition of 31%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 13%, 1%, 5% and 6%, respectively. A correlation of both results showed that the topsoil is mostly of about 0.4 m to 2 m thick layer of clay, indicative of weathering of feldspars. This is underlain by 0.8 m to 7 m thick layer of lateritic clay which responds as a low resistive layer. However, the mineral composition at location 1 is characterized by rocks that are more resistant to weathering due to the presence of low plagioclase in the rock sample compared to samples from other locations with a higher percentage of plagioclase and hypersthene minerals. This implies that weathering condition at all locations except location 1 could be favorable to hydrogeology if there are interconnected fractures in the parent rock (charnockite). However, since the area is predominantly covered by clayey materials which are established as poor foundational materials, appropriate ground improvement techniques and in-depth geotechnical analyses should be performed to forestall hazards associated with them.</p> Dayo Kupolati Joel Amosun Gbenga Olayanju Ajibola Oyebamiji Tokunbo Fagbemigun Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1328 1344 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.11 Application of the Electrical Resistivity Method for Site Investigation in University of Anbar, Ar-Ramadi City, Western Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1481 <p>The 2D resistivity imaging technique was applied in an engineering study for the investigation of subsurface weakness zones within University of Anbar, western Iraq. The survey was carried out using Dipole-dipole array with an n-factor of 6 and a-spacing values of 2 m and 5 m. The inverse models of the 2D electrical imaging clearly show the resistivity contrast between the anomalous parts of the weakness zones and the background resistivity distribution. The thickness and shape of the subsurface weakness zones were well defined from the 2D imaging using Dipole-dipole array of 2 m a-spacing. The thickness of the weakness zone ranges between 9.5 m to 11.5 m. Whereas the Dipole-dipole array with a-spacing of 5 m and n-factor of 6 allocated the geoelectrical stratigraphic layers sequence in low-accuracy of weakness zones, but deeper than the inverse model of 2 m a-spacing. This survey was made to explain the correlation between the weakness zone and the deeper layers in the study area. It points out that the deeper layers were not affected in the weakness zones. The inverse model was produced using the Standard Least-Squares Inversion Method and the Robust Inversion Model Constraints Method. The first method had a gradational boundary of the weakness zones and the second had sharper and straighter boundaries of fractures and voids within the weakness zones.</p> Amina M. Salman Jassim M. Thabit Ali M. Abed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1345 1352 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.12 Diagenetic Processes Overprint and Pore Types of Mauddud Formation, Badra Oil Field, Central Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1538 <p>Diagenetic processes and types of pores that control the reservoir properties are studied for Mauddud Formation in selected wells of Badra oil field, central Iraq. The microscopic study of the thin sections shows the effects of micritization, cementation, neomorphism, dissolution, dolomitization, compaction, and fracturing on Mauddud Formation carbonate microfacies. The decrease of porosity is resulted from cementation, compaction, and neomorphism. Different types of calcite cement occlude pore spaces such as drusy cement, syntaxial rim cement, and granular (blocky) cement. The neomorphism of micritic matrix and skeletal grains reduces porosity as indicated by development of microspar or pseudospar. Evidence of decreasing porosity by compaction includes closer packing of grains, which reduces interparticle porosity. Dissolution process has prominent effect in creating and increasing the effective porosity in different depositional textures of Mauddud Formation. Reservoir properties are increased in grain-supported microfacies, which have vuggy porosity or primary porosity, whose pore size differs depending on the size of the grains. The reservoir properties in the mud-supported microfacies are reduced due to the low occurrence of pores and their lack of connectivity if they exist.</p> Mena Jamal Faisal Thamer A. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1353 1361 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.13 Hartha Formation divisions Based on Well Logs Analysis in Majnoon Oil Field, Southern Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1539 <p>This study aims to evaluate reservoir characteristics of Hartha Formation in Majnoon oil field based on well logs data for three wells (Mj-1, Mj-3 and Mj-11). Log interpretation was carried out by using a full set of logs to calculate main petrophysical properties such as effective porosity and water saturation, as well as to find the volume of shale. The evaluation of the formation included computer processes interpretation (CPI) using Interactive Petrophysics (IP) software.&nbsp; Based on the results of CPI, Hartha Formation is divided into five reservoir units (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2), deposited in a ramp setting. Facies associations is added to well logs interpretation of Hartha Formation, and was inferred by a microfacies analysis of thin sections from core and cutting samples. The CPI shows that the A2 is the main oil- bearing unit, which is characterized by good reservoir properties, as indicated by high effective porosity, low water saturation, and low shale volume. Less important units include A1 and A3, because they have low petrophysical properties compared to the unit A2.</p> Gheed Chaseb Thamer A. Mahdi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1362 1369 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.14 Water Quality of Groundwater in Selected Wells in Zubair Area, Basra City http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1716 <p>Zubair area is located at the extreme part of the south of Iraq and represents the southern part of the western desert, bounded by the north latitudes 30o05'-30o25' and east longitudes 47o30'- 47◦55'. Groundwater is a major natural resource in the study area because no perennial river exists. Groundwater from twenty wells in the study area were analyzed in order to determine some of chemical variables such as major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2 ,Na+ ,K+ ) and major anions (CL- ,SO4-2 ,HCO3- ,CO3-2 ,NO3-) along with several physical variables such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH) , total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity (EC). &nbsp;Hydro-chemical analysis showed that the groundwater of the study area is excessively mineralized, depending on the relation between EC and mineralization. Depending on total hardness (TH), all samples were with very hard water. High chloride concentration in the groundwater of the study area may be an indicator of pollution by sewage and agriculture fertilizers. The increase in flow length of the groundwater in the study area would change the water quality from bicarbonate to sulfate and chloride. &nbsp;&nbsp;The predominant cations recorded are calcium and magnesium along with chloride from the anions, so that the water type is Ca-Mg-CL for most samples. The water wells studied are not suitable for drinking purposes of humans.&nbsp; Depending on TDS and EC values, the water samples are not suitable for irrigation according to FAO 1997 classification. However, the results also revealed an excellent water class depending on Na percentage (Na%) and EC according to Todd 1980 classification for irrigation water. Also, an excellent water class (S1) for agriculture was recorded depending on SAR classification of Subramain, 2005.</p> Saad Muhi Towfik Adnan Jassam Hammadi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1370 1382 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.15 Paleostress Analysis of Chia Gara Structure in Dohuk Area, Northern Iraq http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1941 <p>The use of Right dihedral method, Lisle graph, and Mohr diagram allows the analysis of the paleostress. Fault slip data were measured for eighteen data of two stations located within Chia Gara structure in Dohuk area in the High Folded Zone, Northern Iraq. Depending on Mohr diagram, Bott equation, and vertical thickness, the magnitudes of the paleostress at the time of the tectonic activity were determined. Firstly, Georient Software was used to estimate the orientation of the paleostresses (σ1, σ2 and σ3). Secondly, using the rupture –friction law, taking into account the depth of the overburden, the vertical stress (σv) was calculated to determine the magnitude of the paleostresses in the study area. The values in station one (hinge area, eight data) were σ1=7100, σ2=4121.5, and σ3=1143 bars, whereas the values in station two (the north limb of structure, ten data)&nbsp; were σ1=3740, σ2=1585, and σ3=570 bars. The high magnitudes of the principal stress axes may refer to the active tectonic events which led to the deformation of the area during the Mesozoic Era and the Tertiary period. The study area shows the existence of two types of the faults, the first type is the reactivated faults, the poles of which lie between the sliding line and Mohr envelope. The second type is the inactive faults, with poles lying on the great circle of Mohr diagram</p> Atheer E. K. AL- Hachem Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1383 1391 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.16 The Bouguer Anomaly Map of Iraq According to a New Local Theoretical Gravity Equation and Its Geological Importance http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2206 <p>Four hundred and seventy eight gravity base stations in Iraq were used to obtain a new local theoretical gravity equation. The obtained equation was used to construct a Bouguer anomaly map of Iraq depending on the available gravity base stations. This map was compared with the Bouguer map constructed for the same stations using the international formula (1930). Good similarity in shapes and locations of the anomaly were observed, while the&nbsp;&nbsp; gravity anomaly values in the new map were increased by about 30 mGal. The eastern zero gravity contour line of the new obtained gravity map coincides with the western&nbsp; boundary of the tectonic Mesopotamian zone, while the main negative&nbsp; gravity values coincide with the Mesopotamian area, which contains most oil fields in eastern Iraq. All negative gravity anomaly areas coincide with the deepest basement rocks (the sedimentary basins) in Iraq. The obtained results are very valuable in geological applications.</p> Ahmed S. Al-Banna Salar S. Al- Karadaghi Hamed H. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1392 1400 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.17 Lower and Upper Bounds for Hyper-Zagreb Index of Graphs http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/853 <p>The topological indices are functions on the graph that do not depend on the labeling of their vertices. They are used by chemists for studying the properties of chemical compounds.&nbsp; Let &nbsp;be a simple connected graph. The Hyper-Zagreb index of the graph , &nbsp;is defined as &nbsp;,where &nbsp;and &nbsp;are the degrees of vertex &nbsp;and , respectively. In this paper, we study the Hyper-Zagreb index and give upper and lower bounds for .</p> G. H. SHIRDEL H. REZAPOUR R. NASIRI Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1401 1406 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.18 A Study of Wear Articular Cartilage of Synovial Human Knee Joint Using Non-Newtonian Elastic Mathematical Model http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1324 <p>In this paper, the wear in layers of articular cartilage was calculated, parameters effective on elastic deformation were studied in normal and diseased knee joints,&nbsp;&nbsp; and relations between <strong>elastic deformation and squeeze film </strong>characteristics under lubrication condition&nbsp; were discussed with using a mathematical model. Conferring to the results obtained, elastic deformation effects on the performance of synovial human knee joint were analyzed from medical and dynamics perspectives. Relationships between elastic deformation and wear of layers were also discussed.</p> Enas Yahya Abdullah Hala Khdhie Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1407 1418 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.19 On Analytical Solution of Time-Fractional Type Model of the Fisher’s Equation http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1483 <p>In this paper, the time-fractional Fisher’s equation (TFFE) is considered to exam the analytical solution using the Laplace q-Homotopy analysis method (Lq-HAM)”. The Lq-HAM is a combined form of q-homotopy analysis method (q-HAM) and Laplace transform. The aim of utilizing the Laplace transform is to outdo the shortage that is mainly caused by unfulfilled conditions in the other analytical methods. The results show that the analytical solution converges very rapidly to the exact solution.</p> Shaheed N. Huseen Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1419 1425 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.20 Radiation and Mass Transfer Effects on MHD Oscillatory Flow for Carreau Fluid through an Inclined Porous Channel http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1554 <p>This paper aims to study a mathematical model showing the effects of mass transfer on MHD oscillatory flow for Carreau fluid through an inclined porous channel under the influence of temperature and concentration at a slant angle on the centre of the flow with the effect of gravity. We discussed the effects of several parameters that are effective on fluid movement by analyzing the graphs obtained after we reached the momentum equation solution using the perturbation series method and the MATHEMATICA program to find the numerical results and illustrations. We observed an increased fluid movement by increasing radiation and heat generation while fluid movement decreased by increasing the chemical reaction parameter and Froude number.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Dheia G. Salih Al-Khafajy Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1426 1432 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.21 Bayesian Estimation for the Parameters and Reliability Function of Basic Gompertz Distribution under Squared Log Error Loss Function http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1565 <p>In this paper, some estimators for the unknown shape parameters and reliability function of Basic Gompertz distribution were obtained, such as Maximum likelihood estimator and some Bayesian estimators under Squared log error loss function by using Gamma and Jefferys priors. Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted to compare the performance of all estimates of the shape parameter and Reliability function, based on mean squared errors (MSE) and integrated mean squared errors (IMSE's), respectively. Finally, the discussion is provided to illustrate the results that are summarized in tables.</p> Manahel Kh. Awad Huda A. Rasheed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1433 1439 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.22 A Class of Harmonic Univalent Functions Defined by Differential Operator and the Generalization http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1621 <p>In this paper, a new class of harmonic univalent functions was defined by the differential operator. We obtained some geometric properties, such as the coefficient estimates, convex combination, extreme points, and convolution (Hadamard product), which are required</p> Faten Fakher Aubdulnabi Kassim A. Jassim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1440 1445 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.23 On Dense Subsemimodules and Prime Semimodules http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1667 <p>In this paper, we study the class of prime semimodules and the related concepts, such as the class of &nbsp;semimodules, the class of Dedekind semidomains, the class of prime semimodules which is invariant subsemimodules of its injective hull, and the compressible semimodules. In order to make the work as complete as possible, we stated, and sometimes proved, some known results related to the above concepts.</p> Ahmed H. Alwan Asaad M. A. Alhossaini Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1446 1455 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.24 Stability And Data Dependence Results For The Mann Iteration Schemes on n-Banach Space http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1693 <p>Let &nbsp;be an n-Banach space, M be a nonempty closed convex subset of , and S:M→M be a mapping that belongs to the class &nbsp;mapping. The purpose of this paper is to study the stability and data dependence results of a Mann iteration scheme on n-Banach space</p> Mustafa Mohamed Hamed Zeana Zaki Jamil Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1456 1460 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.25 MHD Effect on Peristaltic Transport for Rabinowitsch Fluid through A Porous Medium in Cilia Channel http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1723 <p>This paper is employed to discuss the effects of the magnetic field and heat transfer on the peristaltic flow of Rabinowitsch fluid through a porous medium in the cilia channel. The governing equations (mass, motion, and energy) are formulated and then the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynold number are used for simplification. The velocity field, pressure gradient, temperature, and streamlines are obtained when the perturbation technique is applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations. The study shows that the velocity is decreased with increasing Hartmann number while it is decreased with increasing the porosity.</p> Saba S. Hasen Ahmed M. Abdulhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1461 1472 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.26 Quasi J-Regular Modules http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1763 <p>Throughout this note, R is commutative ring with identity and M is a unitary R-module. In this paper, we introduce the concept of quasi J- &nbsp;submodules as a &nbsp; &nbsp; – &nbsp;and give some of its basic properties. Using this concept, we define the class of quasi J-regular modules, where an R-module &nbsp; &nbsp; J- module if every submodule of &nbsp;is quasi J-pure. Many results about this concept</p> Rafid M. AL – Shaiban Nuhad S. AL-Mothafar Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1473 1478 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.27 Supplemented and π-Projective Semimodules http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1821 <p>In modules there is a relation between supplemented and π-projective semimodules. This relation was introduced, explained and investigated by many authors. This research will firstly introduce a concept of "supplement subsemimodule" analogues to the case in modules: a subsemimodule <em>Y</em> of a semimodule <em>W</em> is said to be supplement of&nbsp; a subsemimodule <em>X</em> if it is minimal with the property <em>X+Y=W.</em> A subsemimodule<em> Y</em> is called a supplement subsemimodule if it is a supplement of some subsemimodule of <em>W</em>. Then, the concept of supplemented semimodule will be defined as follows: an <em>S</em>-semimodule <em>W</em> is said to be supplemented if every subsemimodule of <em>W </em>is a supplement. We also review other types of supplemented semimodules. Previously, the concept of π-projective semimodule was introduced. The main goal of the present study is to explain the relation between the two concepts, supplemented semimodule and π-projective semimodules, and prove these relations by many results.</p> Muna M. T. Altaee Asaad M. A. Alhossaini Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1479 1487 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.28 Dedekind Multiplication Semimodules http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1879 <p>The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of Dedekind semimodules and study the related concepts, such as the class of <strong>&nbsp;</strong>semimodules, and Dedekind multiplication semimodules .&nbsp; And thus study the concept of the embedding of a semimodule in another semimodule.&nbsp;</p> Ahmed H. Alwan Asaad M. A. Alhossaini Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1488 1497 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.29 Extractive Multi-Document Summarization Model Based On Different Integrations of Double Similarity Measures http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1615 <p>Currently, the prominence of automatic multi document summarization task belongs to the information rapid increasing on the Internet. Automatic document summarization technology is progressing and may offer a solution to the problem of information overload.&nbsp;</p> <p>Automatic text summarization system has the challenge of producing a high quality summary. In this study, the design of generic text summarization model based on sentence extraction has been redirected into a more semantic measure reflecting individually the two significant objectives: <em>content coverage </em>and<em> diversity</em> when generating summaries from multiple documents as an explicit optimization model. The proposed two models have been then coupled and defined as a <em>single-objective</em> <em>optimization</em> problem. Also, for improving the performance of the proposed model, different integrations concerning two similarity measures have been introduced and applied to the proposed model along with the single similarity measures that are based on using <em>Cosine</em>, <em>Dice</em> and &nbsp;similarity measures for measuring text similarity. For solving the proposed model, Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been used. Document sets supplied by Document Understanding Conference 2002 ( ) have been used for the proposed system as an evaluation dataset. Also, as an evaluation metric, Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation ( ) toolkit has been used for performance evaluation of the proposed method. Experimental results have illustrated the positive impact of measuring text similarity using double integration of similarity measures against single similarity measure when applied to the proposed model wherein the best performance in terms of &nbsp;and &nbsp;has been recorded for the integration of Cosine similarity and &nbsp;similarity.</p> Dheyaa Abdulameer Mohammed Nasreen J. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1498 1511 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.30 The Performance Differences between Using Recurrent Neural Networks and Feedforward Neural Network in Sentiment Analysis Problem http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/1761 <p>&nbsp;With the spread use of internet, especially the web of social media, an unusual quantity of information is found that includes a number of study fields such as psychology, entertainment, sociology, business, news, politics, and other cultural fields of nations. Data mining methodologies that deal with social media allows producing enjoyable scene on the human behaviour and interaction. This paper demonstrates the application and precision of sentiment analysis using traditional feedforward and two of recurrent neural networks (gated recurrent unit (GRU) and long short term memory (LSTM)) to find the differences between them. In order to test the system’s performance, a set of tests is applied on two public datasets. The first dataset is collected data from IMDB that contains movie reviews expressed through long sentences of English, whereas the second dataset is a collection of keyword search results of tweets using the Twitter Search API; these tweets are written in English words with short sentences. In this work, a certain pre-processing operation is added to the system and a set of tests is conducted to evaluate the performance enhancement on the whole system due to the addition of these operations. The results of the usage of the traditional feedforward neural networks are poor and do not perform the desired purpose in analysis, because of their inability to save information at a long term and, therefore, their loss of efficiency. While the results of using GRU and LSTM are relatively good and do perform the desired purpose in analysis. A recurrent neural network has been built so that any type of text-related data can be pushed to get the polarity of sentiment by multi deep operations that are dependent on the extracted information.</p> Samar K. Abaas Loay E. George Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1512 1524 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.31 SDN-assisted Service Placement for the IoT-based Systems in Multiple Edge Servers Environment http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/2090 <p>Edge computing is proved to be an effective solution for the Internet of Things (IoT)-based systems. Bringing the resources closer to the end devices has improved the performance of the networks and reduced the load on the cloud. On the other hand, edge computing has some constraints related to the amount of the resources available on the edge servers, which is considered to be limited as compared with the cloud. In this paper, we propose Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based resources allocation and service placement system in the multi-edge networks that serve multiple IoT applications. In this system, the resources of the edge servers are monitored using the proposed Edge Server Application (ESA) to determine the state of the edge server and, therefore, the acceptable services by each server. Benefiting from the information gathered by ESA, the service offloading decision would be taken by the proposed SDN Non-core Application (SNA) in a way that ensures an efficient load distribution and better resources utilization for the edge servers. A Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment Method (WASPAS) was used to determine the best edge server. The proposed system was compared with a non-SDN system and showed improvement in the performance and the utilization of resources of the edge servers. Furthermore, the request handling time was considerably reduced and settled in constant rates for a different number of devices.</p> Iman Mudhafar Ali Mustafa Ismael Salman Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 1525 1540 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.6.32