Iraqi Journal of Science <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> College of Science - University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Science 0067-2904 Irisin Levels Related to Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetic Obese Women <p>The aim of the preset study is to explain the role of irisin hormone levels in type-2 obese diabetic women and compare these levels with those in obese nondiabetic women. In addition, we investigated the relation of irisin levels with those of glycated hemoglobin (HbA<sub>1c</sub>) and body mass index (BMI) in the patients.</p> <p>Eighty eight subjects were included in this study, including 44 type-2 Iraqi obese diabetic women as a patients group, and 44 obese nondiabetic women as a control group. Serum irisin was measured by Enzyme-linked Immune-Sorbent assay (ELISA), while determination of glycosylated Hemoglobin was carried out by The SD A1c Care<sup>TM</sup> system. Diabetic type-2 obese women showed a highly significant decrease in the levels of serum irisin when compared to levels in obese non-diabetic women, while no significant changes were observed in the mean±SD values when comparing age and duration of DM. In the patients, a negative correlation was found between serum irisin and HbA<sub>1c</sub> while no significant correlation was recorded between the hormone levels and BMI.</p> Raghd A. Y. Alkhader Khitam Abdul Wahab Ali Abbas Mahdi Rahmah Al-Kharasani Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2150 2155 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.1 Extraction and Characterization of Chitosan from Crab Shells: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Arsenic and Copper Adsorption from Electroplating Wastewater <p>Crab shells were used to produce chitosan via the three stages of deproteinization, demineralization and deacetylation using sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid under different treatment conditions of temperature and time. The produced chitosan was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high – resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption behavior of chitosan to remove arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) from electroplating wastewater was examined by batch adsorption process as a function of adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature. The FTIR, XRD, HRSEM and EDS analyses confirmed, respectively, the presence of –NH<sub>2</sub> and –OH functional groups, with amorphous/crystalline phases, crystallinity index of 69.54%, needle-like morphology and Carbon (C), Oxygen (O) and Nitrogen N) in the produced chitosan. While DLS, BET and TGA showed, respectively, that the produced chitosan has an average particle size of 729nm, is moderately polydisperse, has12.67 m<sup>2</sup>/g surface area, mesoporous in nature, and with thermal stability of up to 143<sup>0</sup>C. The optimum adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature values to remove As and Cu by chitosan were 15mg, 45 minutes, 333K and25mg, 60 minutes, 349K,respectively. Under the employed conditions, chitosan though has a low surface area, displaying high adsorption capacity for both metal ions. The adsorption isotherm data were better fitted to the Jovanovic isotherm model while the kinetic data fitted best to the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic studies established that the adsorption was feasible but endothermic in nature. This study shows that chitosan adsorbents purify electroplating wastewater.</p> Sumaila A. Ndamitso M. M. Iyaka Y. A. Abdulkareem, A. S. Tijani J. O. Idris M. O. Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2156 2171 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.2 Spectrophotometric Determination of Bromhexine Hydrochloride in Its Pharmaceutical Preparations by Diazotization and Coupling Method <p>A simple, fast, and sensitive spectrophotometric method was suggested for the determination of Bromhexine Hydrochloride (BHH) in its pharmaceutical formulations. The method depends on the diazotization of BHH by sodium nitrite in acidic medium to produce the corresponding diazonium salt. The latter is coupled with phloroglucinol reagent in alkali medium to form a yellow water soluble azo-dye which has a maximum absorption at 405 nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.7×10<sup>4</sup> l.mol<sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup> and Sandellʼs sensitivity of 0.01517 µ<sup>-1</sup>. Beerʼs low is obeyed within a concentration range of 0.25-15 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup> of BHH. The LOD and LOQ values of the proposed method were 0.087 µg.mL<sup>-1</sup> and 0.293 µ<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The proposed method was validated with standard methods and successfully applied to the determination of Bromhexine in its pharmaceutical formulations as tablets, syrup, and injections.</p> Saad Hasani Sultan Zainab Walid Majed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2172 2181 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.3 Extraction and Purification of Lipases Enzyme from Germinating Seeds of Four Crops <p>Lipase enzyme has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its diverse biotechnological applications. The present study was conducted to screen germinated seeds of four crops, namely sunflower (<em>Helianthus annuus)</em>, flaxor linseed (<em>Linum usitatissimum</em> ), peanut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>&nbsp; ) and castor bean (<em>Ricinus communis</em>), for the activity of their lipases. to the study also included the extraction and purification of lipase from the seeds of&nbsp; the most promising crop using different solvents.</p> <p>The results indicated that the maximum enzymatic activity (0.669 U/ml) was&nbsp; obtained when 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer extract was used after 3 days of seed germination of all the tested species, as compared to the other test solvents (acetone and water). Sunflower germinated seeds showed the highest lipase activity, which was higher by 159.67, 185.32, and 285.90 % over the activities of castor bean, flax, and peanut seeds, respectively. Among the used ranges of saturation of ammonium sulfate, the&nbsp; ratio of 70% was the best in precipitating the crude enzyme, showing a highest specific activity of 2.576 U/ mg protein.</p> <p>The first stage of gel filtration chromatography column by Sephadex G-200&nbsp; indicated the presence of two non-identical peaks, one for protein and another for lipase activity, between the fractions of 18 to 23. The active fractions were pooled and loaded again in the Sephadex G-200 column and the eluted fractions showed two identical peaks, one for protein and another for lipase activity, between the fractions of 19 to 23. The final purification step by gel filtration showed a specific activity of 6.482 U/mg proteins with a yield of 38.75 % and 11.33 folds of time of purification. The study revealed that sunflower seeds are a better source of lipase as compared to&nbsp; the other used plant seeds, which can be used in different industries.</p> Alaa M. Dh. Al-Haidari Saad H. Khudhair Ibrahim S. Alsaadawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2182 2188 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.4 Cytogenetic in Vivo Effects of The Aqueous Extract of Raphanus Sativus L. Leaves in Mitosis of the Meristematic Cells of \Onion Roots <p>The current study included the preparation of the aqueous extract <em>of Raphanus sativus</em>&nbsp;(<em>Brassicaceae</em>), commonly known as radish which is widely available throughout the world and has been used in folk medicine as a natural drug against many toxicants. The study was designed to evaluate the <em>in vivo </em>cytogenetic activity of the crude aqueous extract of <em>R. sativus</em> on mitosis on<em> Allium cepa </em>root tips as a plant test system<em>.</em> Root tips of <em>A. cepa</em> were tested for four hours with four concentrations of the crude aqueous extract (0.00, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/ml). The study included a number of cytogenetic analyses such as mitotic index, phase index, and chromosomal aberration. The data showed that this extract led to reducing the mitotic index (MI) to less than 50%. Specifically, when treated with 10 and 40 mg/ml the mitotic index reached 23.72 % and 41.89 %, respectively. This reduction is considered to have toxic and sublethal effects. The extract caused an arrest of the cells at metaphase (c-metaphase) with a high percentage of 80.76% at 5 mg/ml, along with chromosomal aberrations including sticky metaphase, polar deviation, and bridges in anaphase.</p> Rasha Kareem Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2189 2195 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.5 The Evaluation of Some Biomarkers According to Rheumatoid Factor in Early Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis from Iraqi Patients <p>&nbsp;Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease for long-term that primarily affects small joints and leads to chronic inflammation in synovial. The aimed of the study to identify the relationships among some serological markers (antibodies to citrullinated protein/peptide antigens (ACPAs), anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV), anti-carbamylated protein (Anti-Carp), anti- heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP) and Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)) and early diagnosis of RA. The study involved (60) Patients of newly diagnosis with RA that divided in to two subgroups (30 RF positive and 30 RF negative) groups and 30 subjects as healthy control group. The serological data from serum concentration of (ACPAs, Anti-MCV, Anti-Carp, Anti-hnRNP, G6PI) estimated by ELISA methods, RF estimated by latex agglutination kits. The results revealed that ACPAs, Anti-MCV, Anti-Carp, Anti-hnRNP, G6PI having a statistical significants at the mean±SD titer different between the two RF groups, a higher value among the refractory RA patients in comparison with the control group. Also effectively distinguishing RA patients groups for RF+ve and RF-ve with showed the sensitivity and specificity of, ACPAs (90.8% , 94.1%, and &nbsp;88.2%, 86.6%); anti-MCV (66.7% , 33.0% and 70.0%, 70.2%); anti-CarP (76.7% , 90.0% and 93.3%, 78.5%); anti-hnRNP (74.9% , 61.9% and 71.4%, 70.9%) and GPI (77.3% , 76.7% and 84.4%, 80.1%) respectively. This study confirm the importance of measuring multiple serum biomarkers and their com­binations with high diagnostic value for RA and provide sup­port for the early diagnosis of RA.</p> Hind Jaber Hassoon Walaa Esmail Jasim Ahmed Abdul Hassan Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2196 2203 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.6 Bacteriological and Molecular Study of Fluoroquinolones Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From Different Clinical Sources <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the resistance of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and the effects of mutations in the resistance gene in clinical isolates of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> isolated from different sources in Al-Hussein Hospital, Al-Samawah city, Iraq. The basic mechanism of the resistant of fluoroquinolones in <em>P. aeruginosa</em> is via mutations occurring in the basic bacterial <em>gyrA</em> gene encoding-subunit A of DNA gyrase . Forty clinical isolates from various sourced&nbsp; (burn 7 (17.5 %), wound 7 (17.5 %), ear 2 (5 %), operation room 12 (30 %), urine 3 (7.5 %), and industrial dialysis center 9 (22.5 %)) were isolated based on bacteriological methods confirmed by <em>16s rRNA</em> gene using PCR technique. A sensitivity test was conducted to all isolates by Kirby-Pour method using 7 antibiotics of fluoroquinolones. Amongst the 40 clinical isolates, 10 were resistant and 3 were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 27 were intermediate, resistant and sensitive to two or more of tested antibiotics, with the resistance being confirmed by the minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) test. The ten resistant isolates were used to examine the mutations in <em>gyrA</em> gene. A direct sequence method was used and revealed eight mutations in <em>gyrA </em>gene at different positions. In addition, we found that fluoroquinolone activity in the sensitive isolates, after sequencing for these isolates, is a bacteriostatic activity. The results of this study showed the <em>gyrA</em> mutations resulting from the excessive use of antibiotics are one of the mechanisms may be that leading to fluoroquinolone resistance.</p> Mustafa Abd Al-Mayali Ehab D. Salman Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2204 2214 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.7 Efficiency of Plant Active Compounds as Anti-Adhesion Factors for Clinical Candida albicans Isolates in vitro <p>The aim of this study is the determination of the anti-adhesion activity of active compounds extracted from plants in the inhibition of adhesion ability of <em>C. albicans </em>that is used as a virulence factor for infection. Adherence to host surfaces is a primary factor in the colonization of human tissues by fungi, which can also adhere to the surfaces of medical devices and form biofilms. Medicinal plants possess therapeutic properties or beneficial pharmacological effects on the body. A total of one hundred samples were collected from female patients with vaginal infection in two hospitals in Baghdad city for three months. The fungi were isolated and identified by microscopic morphology, morphological features on culture media, and Vital Index of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (VITEK 2) System. Extraction and purification of plant active compounds, vasicine from <em>Adhatoda vasica</em> and gallic acid from <em>Punica granatum L. </em>, were performed. The active compounds were used as anti-adhesion factors and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against <em>Candida albicans </em>was determined. We also used the antifungal drug fluconazole for comparison as a control. The results of&nbsp; vaginal discharge characterization&nbsp; of clinical samples showed that 30% of the infections are caused by fungi (100% were <em>Candida albicans</em>), 47% by Gram negative bacteria, and 23% by Gram positive bacteria. The results of MIC assays showed that the plant extract and the antifungal drug do not seem to have fungicidal effects on the isolates of <em>C. albicans</em> tested. The ability of <em>C. albicans </em>isolates for adhesion to the epithelial cells was detected by the calculation of the number of adherent <em>C. albicans </em>cells under light microscope. The activity of vasicin and gallic acid appeared to be approximately equal on the number of <em>C. albicans</em> adherent on epithelial cells. Vasicin concentration activity used in mg/ ml was higher than that used in µg/ ml, with&nbsp; less numbers of <em>C. albicans</em> adhered on epithelial cell. However, treatment with fluconazole showed that more than half of the number of <em>C. albicans</em> were non-adherent on epithelial cells when added to the suspension, in contrast to the control (<em>C. albicans </em>without the extracts or antifungal drug).</p> Dhuha Hussein Khairallah Majid Rasheed Majeed Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2215 2225 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.8 Effects of MWCNTs on the Tensile Properties and Thermal Conductivity of BaTiO3 /Epoxy Nanocomposites <p>This research studied the effects of modified BaTiO<sub>3</sub> (BT) nanoparticles with coupling agent γ-APS (0.5wt. %) on the tensile and thermal conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites with respect to content (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 3 and 5wt. %). Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentration (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1 wt. %) were added to the BaTiO<sub>3</sub>/epoxy nanocomposites. The influence of MWCNTs on the tensile properties and thermal conductivity was investigated. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus of BaTiO<sub>3</sub>/epoxy nanocomposites film were increased at up to 3 wt. % of added BT, but&nbsp; adding BT at more than 3 wt.% decreased the strength of epoxy. The tensile strength was increased with increasing MWCNTs content from 32 MPa for pure epoxy to the value 56.8 MPa for 1wt. % of MWCNTs content. The thermal conductivity of BaTiO<sub>3</sub>/epoxy nanocomposites improved with increase of BT content. At 3wt. % and 5wt. % of BaTiO<sub>3</sub> the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites decreased. The increase of MWCNTs concentration from 0.2 wt. % to 1 wt. % resulted in a thermal conductivity enhancement.</p> Iman Ibrahem Nassif Ban Mazin Al-Shabander Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2226 2231 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.9 Degradable Evaluation of Two Types of Biopolymers in Loam Soil <p>Gel-biopolymers were prepared by different weights of two polymers (PVA, and PEG) dissolved with distilled water. Thick films of these polymers were prepared by using the casting method, with different thicknesses (t= 0.48, 0.34mm for PVA and t=0.58 mm for PEG). The objective of this research is to determine the viability of the organic polymer films of PEG and PVA on decomposition and the time required for their degradation&nbsp; in the soil. The purpose is to use these polymers in industry without leaving plastic residues along with the possibility of their application as fertilizers for soil. The results showed that PEG film was degraded during the first week, while PVA film was changed in weight from 0.3 to 0.23 g and thickness from 0.34to 0.21 cm. We also observed change in the shape of the sample along with ripples and holes during three month.</p> Leqaa M. Hussain Salma M. Hassan M. Hassan S. Bahia Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2232 2240 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.10 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation System <p>In this study, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide were synthesized by pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) focused on the pure graphite target which was immersed in distilled water. Different pulse energies were applied in two cases; with and without magnetic field. The synthesized GO and rGO nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with and without magnetic field. The data show the presence of a magnetic field which illustrated increasing oxygen functional groups of GO. This caused a change in the morphology of the surface of GO, increasing crystallite size from 12.19 nm to 71.2 nm. The interlayer distance (d-space) was reduced from 0.4 nm to 0.25 nm and the absorption peaks that appeared in the spectrum were reduced and shifted toward smallest wavelengths, while the stretching vibration of the O-H group peak was shifted toward largest wavelengths.</p> Atiaf K. Jeryo Qusay Adnan Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2241 2250 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.11 Synthesis and Investigation of the Structure and Optical Properties of Nano -Ni-Cr Films <p>The thermal evaporation technique was used to prepare the Ni-Cr films with a thickness of 200 nm and a rate of deposition &nbsp;of 0.22nm/Sec. The annealing was performed at 373 and 473 K. The structural and optical analyses of the grown layers were achieved and XRD patterns showed amorphous structure transferred to polycrystalline for film annealed at 373 and 473 K. AFM analysis showed that the surface of Ni-Cr films is homogenous and the average roughness, optical energy gap and absorption coefficient were increased with increasing annealing temperature (T<sub>a</sub>).</p> Jinan H. Awadh Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2251 2256 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.12 Scavenging of Free Radicals Generated in Biological Tissues Exposed to Ionizing Radiation Using Silver Nanoparticles <p>Humans are exposed to nuclear radiations every day, and these radiations are both natural and artificial. When the body tissues are exposed to nuclear radiation, free radicals are formed, which are responsible for cancer development. In this research, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by electrical explosion wire method. Nanoparticles were added to deionized water that contained free radicals before and after exposure to gamma rays. The obtained results indicate that the silver nanoparticles have antioxidant potential through possessing free radical scavenging activity, as they can donate electron to free radicals and become neutralize. Then, these nanoparticles were injected to mice before and after their irradiation with gamma ray. The liver and kidney of the mice were shown to be unaffected by gamma irradiation.</p> Asia H. Al-Mashhadani Omar Salah Ashour Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2257 2265 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.13 Neotectonic Activity of Segmented Alluvial Fans Along Hemr in South Anticline, East Iraq <p>A quantitative analysis of geomorphic indices was carried out to understand the impacts of tectonics on the geomorphological relief of drainage basins and alluvial fans. Based on field work, satellite images and aerial photographs interpretation, five stages of alluvial fanswere recognized within the study area. Theyare of a coalesced type, forming continuous belt of Bajada, andcovering vast areas whichextend along the southwestern limb of Hemrinanticline. The alluvial fans’ sediments lie unconformably over pre- Quaternary sediments represented by angular unconformity.The earlier stages of the fanswere developed during the Plio- Pleistocene age, whereas the later stage represents the sediments of the Holocene age. Fourdistinct segmented alluvial fans were considered under this study, located within Torsaq and Shosharin basins. They aredeveloped in the first, second and third stagesof alluvial fans. Some morphotectonic parameters were calculated in order to understand the tectonic dynamics of these fans, includingmountain front sinuosity (Smf), ratio of valley floor’s width to height (Vf), fan tilting(β), and drainage basin asymmetry (FA). The results showedless active mountain frontand low uplift,according to the acquired high values of Vf.The fansare tilted towards the west direction, indicating uplift of their eastern parts,whilethe main streams are shifted downstream to the right.</p> Hala A. Al-Musawi Hamed H. Abdallah Thair M. Azzawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2266 2276 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.14 Hydrochemical Assessment of Groundwater and Some Springs in Qazaniyah Area, Diyala province, East of Iraq <p>The Qazaniyah study included the analysis of 18 wells and 2 springs for the dry period in October 2018 and the wet period in April 2019, including the analysis of physical and chemical properties and the study of heavy elements (Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu).The results showed that the water wells and springs for the two periods are highly mineralized and characterized by low alkalinity and very high hardness. Water was fresh in some wells and salty in the others, whereas it was fresh in the springs. Most&nbsp; of the wells had sodium chloride type, except the wells 12, 7, 6, and 5 which were of Calcium chloride type. The springs for both seasons had calcium chloride type. Based on the World Health Organization criteria ,&nbsp; all the wells for both periods are not suitable for human drinking, whereas the springs are suitable only for drinking of livestock and poultry. Sodium adsorption rate (SAR) was excellent for groundwater and springs for both seasons. The percentage of sodium&nbsp; (na%) in both seasons showed that the wells 18,17,15,11,4,3 as well as the springs are within the permissible limits for irrigation purposes, while the remaining of the wells was not.</p> Haider N. Fakhre Firas Mudhafar Abdulhussein Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2277 2292 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.15 Stratigraphic Analysis of Gercus Formation in Dohuk area, Northern Iraq <p>A surface section of the Gercus Formation (Middle-Late Eocene) was studied in Berafat area, Dohuk Governorate, Northern Iraq. The Gercus Formation consists of a mixed siliciclastic sediments, evaporates and carbonate sequences in the studied region, predominantly in the upper and middle parts. Nevertheless, it usually consists of upward-fining carbonate-rich sandstone cyclothems, marl, conglomerate and siltstone along with a gypsum lens and thin micrite carbonate beds.&nbsp; The Gercus Formation was deposited in delta and delta front of occasionally depositional environment which is represented by red-brown claystone and reddish-brown mudstone lithofacies. Cross bedded&nbsp; pebbly sandstone, trough cross-bedded sandstone&nbsp; and laminated cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies are deposited in braided delta&nbsp; environment. Marl lithofacies and gypsum lithofacies are deposited in intertidal and supratidal environments. The sea level fluctuation caused the river base level to occasionally rise and fall. In addition, the process changed from erosion to deposition, while the grain size also changed at different environments from gravel to sand and clays. The Gercus succession of northern Iraq was developed during the Middle-Late Eocene in an active margin basin, where the last stage closure of the New-Tethys and its collision with the Eurasian plate took place between the northeastern Arabian plate. It caused major episodes of uplifts and subsidence along with base level variations due to eustatic ups and downs. Within Gercus Formation, several fourth order cycles can be recognized, reflecting generally asymmetrical cycles, as well as the difference between sediment supply and accommodation space.</p> Karrar Hassooni Awad Hamid Ali Ahmed Alsultan Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2293 2302 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.16 Mixed Implicit Galerkin – Frank Wolf, Gradient and Gradient Projection Methods for Solving Classical Optimal Control Problem Governed by Variable Coefficients, Linear Hyperbolic, Boundary Value Problem <p>This paper deals with testing a numerical solution for the discrete classical optimal control problem governed by a linear hyperbolic boundary value problem with variable coefficients. When the discrete classical control is fixed, the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorem for the discrete solution of the discrete weak form is achieved. The existence theorem for the discrete classical optimal control and the necessary conditions for optimality of the problem are proved under suitable assumptions. The discrete classical optimal control problem (DCOCP) is solved by using the mixed Galerkin finite element method to find the solution of the discrete weak form (discrete state). Also, it is used to find the solution for the discrete adjoint weak form (discrete adjoint) with the Gradient Projection method (GPM) , the Gradient method (GM), or the Frank Wolfe method (FWM) to the DCOCP. Within each of these three methods, the Armijo step option (ARSO) or the optimal step option (OPSO) is used to improve (to accelerate the step) the solution of the discrete classical control problem. Finally, some illustrative numerical examples for the considered discrete control problem are provided. The results show that the GPM with ARSO method is better than GM or FWM with ARSO methods. On the other hand, the results show that the GPM and GM with OPSO methods are better than the FWM with the OPSO method.</p> Eman H. Mukhalef Al-Rawdanee Jamil A. Ali Al-Hawasy Al-Hawasy Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2303 2314 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.17 Asymptotic Criteria of Neutral Differential Equations with Positive and Negative Coefficients and Impulsive Integral Term <p>In this paper, the asymptotic behavior of all solutions of impulsive neutral differential equations with positive and negative coefficients and with impulsive integral term was investigated. Some sufficient conditions were obtained to ensure that all nonoscillatory solutions converge to zero. Illustrative examples were given for the main results.</p> Hussain Ali Mohamad Aqeel Jaddoa Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2315 2323 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.18 Modal Analysis of Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam Subjected to Concentrated Moving Load <p>This paper investigates the modal analysis of vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to concentrated load. The governing partial differential equation was analysed to determine the behaviour of the system under consideration. The series solution and numerical methods were used to solve the governing partial differential equation. The results revealed that the amplitude increases as the length of the beam increases. It was also found that the response amplitude increases as the foundation increases at fixed length of the beam.</p> Usman M. A Makinde T. A. Daniel D. O. Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2324 2334 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.19 Applying the Shrinkage Technique for Estimating the Scale Parameter of Weighted Rayleigh Distribution <p>This paper includes the estimation of the scale parameter of weighted Rayleigh distribution using well-known methods of estimation (classical and Bayesian). The proposed estimators were compared using Monte Carlo simulation based on mean squared error (MSE) criteria. Then, all the results of simulation and comparisons were demonstrated in tables.&nbsp;</p> Intesar Obeid Hassoun Adel Abdulkadhim Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2335 2340 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.20 A Jordan Higher Reverse Left (resp. right) Centralizer on Prime -Rings <p>In this paper,&nbsp; we introduce the concepts of &nbsp;higher reverse left (resp.right)&nbsp;&nbsp; centralizer, Jordan higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizer, and Jordan triple higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizer of&nbsp; G-rings. We prove that every Jordan higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizer of a 2-torsion free prime G-ring M is a higher reverse left (resp. right) centralizer of&nbsp; M.</p> Fawaz Ra'ad Jarullah Salah Mehdi Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2341 2349 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.21 Analytic functions, Subordination, q-Ruscheweyh derivative, Hadamard product, Univalent function <p>In this paper, making use of the q-R uscheweyh differential &nbsp;operator , and &nbsp;the&nbsp; notion of t h e J anowski f unction, we study some subclasses of &nbsp;holomorphic &nbsp; f- unction s . Moreover , we obtain so me geometric characterization like co efficient es timat es , rad ii of starlikeness ,distortion theorem , close- t o- convexity , con vexity, ext reme point s, neighborhoods, and the i nte gral mean inequalities of func tions affiliation to these c lasses</p> Osamah N. Kassar Abdul Rahman S. Juma Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2350 2360 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.22 An Automated Classification of Mammals and Reptiles Animal Classes Using Deep Learning <p>Detection and classification of animals is a major challenge that is facing the researchers. There are five classes of vertebrate animals, namely the Mammals, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Fish, and each type includes many thousands of different animals. In this paper, we propose a new model based on the training of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) to detect and classify two classes of vertebrate animals (Mammals and Reptiles). Deep CNNs are the state of the art in image recognition and are known for their high learning capacity, accuracy, and robustness to typical object recognition challenges. The dataset of this system contains 6000 images, including 4800 images for training. The proposed algorithm was tested by using 1200 images. The accuracy of the system’s prediction for the target object was 97.5%.</p> Elham Mohammed Thabit A. ALSAADI Nidhal K. El Abbadi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2361 2370 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.23 A New Beta Chaotic Map with DNA Encoding for Color Image Encryption <p>Images hold important information, especially in military and commercial surveillance as well as in industrial inspection and communication. Therefore, the protection of the image from abuse, unauthorized access, and damage became a significant demand. This paper introduces a new Beta chaotic map for encrypting and confusing the color image with Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence. First, the DNA addition operation is used for diffusing each component of the plain image. Then, a new Beta chaotic map is used for shuffling the DNA color image. In addition, two chaotic maps, namely the proposed new Beta and Sine chaotic maps, are used for key generation. Finally, the DNA XOR operation is applied between the generated key and shuffled DNA image to produce the cipher image.&nbsp; The experimental results prove that the proposed method surpassed the other methods in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR), entropy, and correlation coefficient.</p> Sarab M. Hameed Ibtisam A. Taqi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2371 2384 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.24 Smart Doctor: Performance of Supervised ART-I Artificial Neural Network for Breast Cancer Diagnoses <p>Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD) was employed to show the performance of the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART), specifically the supervised ART-I Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to build a breast cancer diagnosis smart system. It was fed with different learning parameters and sets. The best result was achieved when the model was trained with 50% of the data and tested with the remaining 50%. Classification accuracy was compared to other artificial intelligence algorithms, which included fuzzy classifier, MLP-ANN, and SVM. We achieved the highest accuracy with such low learning/testing ratio.</p> Kamal R. AL-Rawi Saifaldeen K. AL-Rawi Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2385 2394 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.25 Ultrasound Images Registration Based on Optimal Feature Descriptor Using Speeded Up Robust Feature <p>Image registration plays a significant role in the medical image processing field. This paper proposes a development on the accuracy and performance of the Speeded-Up Robust Surf (SURF) algorithm to create Extended Field of View (EFoV) Ultrasound (US) images through applying different matching measures. These measures include Euclidean distance, cityblock distance, variation, and correlation in the matching stage that was built in the SURF algorithm. The US image registration (fusion) was implemented depending on the control points obtained from the used matching measures. The matched points with higher frequency algorithm were proposed in this work to perform and enhance the EFoV for the US images, since the maximum accurate matching points would have been selected. The resulted fused images of these applied methods were evaluated subjectively and objectively. The objective assessment was conducted by calculating the execution time, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the registered images and the reference image which was fused manually by a physician. The results showed that the cityblock distance has the best result since it has the highest PSNR and SNR in addition to the lowest execution time.</p> Hawra’a Lateef Joey Ahlam Hanoon Al-sudani Maher Faik Esmaile Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2395 2407 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.26 Enhancement of Wheat Leaf Images Using Fuzzy-Logic Based Histogram Equalization to Recognize Diseases <p>The detection of diseases affecting wheat is very important as it relates to the issue of food security, which poses a serious threat to human life. Recently, farmers have heavily relied on modern systems and techniques for the control of the vast agricultural areas. Computer vision and data processing play a key role in detecting diseases that affect plants, depending on the images of their leaves. In this article, Fuzzy- logic based Histogram Equalization (FHE) is proposed to enhance the contrast of images. The fuzzy histogram is applied to divide the histograms into two subparts of histograms, based on the average value of the original image, then equalize them freely and independently to conserve the brightness of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using two well-known parameters: Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The best results were reflected by MSE = 0.071 and PSNR =39.58 for the Mildew Powdery disease. It is impressive to recognize that the proposed method yielded clear positive outcomes through producing better contrast enhancement while preserving the details of the original image, as confirmed by the subjective metrics.</p> Fatima I. Abbas Nabeel Mubarak Mirza Amel H. Abbas Layla H. Abbas Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2408 2417 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.27 Monitoring and Enhancement of Mobile System Performance <p>Android operating system, since its first start, is growing very fast and takes a large space in smart devices market. It is built and developed on Linux and designed basically for touch screen devices such as, mobiles, tablets, etc. Mobile devices are markedly complicated and feature-rich; therefore they are prone to reliability of software and performance problems. Because of the small resources, smart devices, such as CPU, RAM, suffer from problems. One of these problems is Software Aging (SA). SA is recognized in long running OSs as a shortage in resources, performance retreating, and finally failure. SA is looked at from two sides, namely the poor response time of application which represents the end user side and the shortage in metrics related to device resources, such as RAM and storage. In this paper, a set of eight experiments is conducted to distinguish SA in Android mobiles. These experiments are conducted to find the correlation between Launch Time (LT) with RAM and storage metrics covered in this paper. Statistical methods, such as Mann Kendall test, Sen’s slope, Spearman rank correlation, and Design of Experiment (DOE) are used to prove the correlation statistically. These experiments assist to detect SA, which will be helpful in the rejuvenation strategy of applications.</p> Khalid S. Noori Assmaa A. Fahad Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2418 2425 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.28 Shadow Elimination in Soccer Game Video using Background Subtraction and Sobel Operators <p>Object detection in real time is considered as a challenging problem. However, it is very important in a wide range of applications, especially in field of multimedia. The players and ball are the most important objects in soccer game videos and detecting them is a challenging task because of many difficulties, such as shadow and illumination, ball size, ball occluded by players or merged with lines, and similar appearance of players. To overcome these problems, we present a new system to detect the players and ball in real-time by using background subtraction and Sobel detection. The results were more accurate and approximately two times faster than those using only background subtraction.</p> Huda Dheyauldeen Najeeb Rana Fareed Ghani Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2426 2433 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.29 Hybrid Filter for Enhancing Input Microphone-Based Discriminative Model <p>Voice denoising is the process of removing undesirable voices from the voice signal. Within the environmental noise and after the application of speech recognition system, the discriminative model finds it difficult to recognize the waveform of the voice signal. This is due to the fact that the environmental noise needs to use a suitable filter that does not affect the shaped waveform of the input microphone. This paper plans to build up a procedure for a discriminative model, using infinite impulse response filter (Butterworth filter) and local polynomial approximation (Savitzky-Golay) smoothing filter that is a polynomial regression on the signal values. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) was calculated after filtering to compare the results after and before adding the Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter. This procedure showed better results for the filtering of ambient noise and protecting a waveform from distortion, which makes the discriminative model more accurate when recognizing voice. Our procedure for preprocessing was developed and successfully implemented on a discriminative model by using MATLAB.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hani S. Hassan Jammila Harbi S. Maisa'a Abid Ali Kodher Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 2434 2439 10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.30