Iraqi Journal of Science 2020-12-02T02:14:02-06:00 Iraqi Journal of Science Open Journal Systems <p>Iraqi Journal of Science (IJS) is a blind peer reviewed open access journal issued by the College of Science at the University of Baghdad. It is a monthly journal that publishes original research articles in a wide range of subjects. The prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board in the journal reflects the diversity of subjects covered in the journal. The journal is being published since 1956.</p> <p>The journal is basically self – financed by applying fees on the researcher’s work published in the journal. However, the journal is also supported by the college of science at the University of Baghdad.</p> Electrochemical Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Co-Substituted By Sr/Mg Coating on Ti-6Al-4V ELI Dental Alloy Post-MAO as Anti-Corrosion 2020-11-30T09:11:02-06:00 Haider Abdulkareem AlMashhadani Khulood Abed Saleh <p>This work involved the co-substitution of the two bioactive ions of strontium and magnesium into the hydroxyapatite (HA) coating which was then electrochemically deposited on Ti-6Al-4V ELI dental alloy (Gr.23) before and after treatment by Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO). The deposited layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adhesion strength of the coating layer was estimated by using pull-off adhesion test. The adhesion strength of Sr/Mg-HA on the Ti-6Al-4V ELI dental alloy after MAO treatment was 1.79 MPa, which was higher than that before MAO treatment (1.62 MPa). The corrosion behavior of the alloy in artificial saliva environment at temperature ranged 293-323K was assessed by means of electrochemical techniques and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion protection to the alloy at 293K was increased from 67.98% before treatment by MAO to 75.87% after treatment. The antimicrobial properties of the coated alloy were evaluated against different bacteria and oral fungi (Candida).</p> 2020-11-28T14:06:22-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Mixed Ligand Complexes of Fe (II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) Ions Derived from Imine of Benzidine and o-phenylenediammine 2020-11-30T09:10:41-06:00 Hayder Hamied Mihsen Suhad Kareem Abass Maysaa Taqe Abed –Alhasan Zainab M. Hassan Ali Kreem Abass <p>Binuclear metal complexes of the metal ions Fe (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) were synthesized by the reaction of these metal ions with the imine of benzidine (H2L) as a primary ligand and o-phenylenediammine (OPD) as a secondary ligand&nbsp; in a molar ratio of 2:2:1. The prepared complexes were characterized using CHN elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-visible, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and TGA-DTA thermogravimetric analysis. All the prepared complexes showed apparent stability and could be stored for months without any appreciable change. According to the results obtained by elemental and spectral analyses, a tetrahedral structure is suggested for all the prepared complexes, except for the copper complex which showed a square planar structure. The antimicrobial activities of these complexes were evaluated against Bacillus spp. (Gram-negative bacteria), Proteus spp. (Gram-positive bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (A. niger, a fungal species). The results showed that all the prepared complexes have no apparent effects on Bacillus spp. viability, whereas Proteus spp.&nbsp; and A. niger were affected significantly.</p> 2020-11-28T14:12:39-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Theoretical and Experimental Studies for Inhibition Potentials of Imidazolidine 4-One and Oxazolidine 5-One Derivatives for the Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Sea Water 2020-11-30T09:10:20-06:00 Rehab M Kubba Nada M. Al-Joborry Naeemah J. Al-lami <p>Two derivatives of Iimidazolidin 4-one (IMID4) and Oxazolidin 5-one (OXAZ5), were investigated as corrosion inhibitors of corrosion carbon steel in sea water by employing the theoretical and experimental methods. The results revealed that they inhibit the corrosion process and their %IE followed the order: IMID4 (89.093%) &gt; OXAZ5 (80.179%). The %IE obtained via theoretical and experimental methods were in a good agreement with each other. The thermodynamic parameters obtained by potentiometric polarization measurements have supported a physical adsorption mechanism which followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum mechanical method of Density Functional Theory (DFT) of B3LYP with a level of 6-311++G (2d, 2p) were used to calculate the geometrical structure, physical properties and inhibition efficiency parameters, in vacuum and two solvents (DMSO and H<sub>2</sub>O), all calculated at the equilibrium geometry, and correlated with the experimental %IE. The local reactivity has been studied through Mulliken charges population analysis. The morphology of the surface changes of carbon steel were studied using SEM and AFM techniques.</p> 2020-11-28T14:19:09-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Removal of Aniline Blue from Textile Wastewater using Electrocoagulation with the Application of the Response Surface Approach 2020-11-30T09:09:59-06:00 Mohammed A. Atiya Mohanad J. M-Ridha Meqat A. Saheb <p>This paper investigated the treatment of textile wastewater polluted with aniline blue (AB) by electrocoagulation process using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a horizontal arrangement. The experimental design involved the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) to find the mathematical model, by adjusting the current density (4-20 mA/cm2), distance between electrodes (0.5-3 cm), salt concentration (50-600 mg/l), initial dye concentration (50-250 mg/l), pH value (2-12 ) and experimental time (5-20 min). The results showed that time is the most important parameter affecting the performance of the electrocoagulation system. Maximum removal efficiency (96 %) was obtained at a current density of 20 mA/cm2, distance between electrodes of 1.75 cm, salt concentration of 462.5 mg/l, dye concentration of 50 ppm, pH value of 7, and time duration of 15 min. On the other hand, the electrocoagulation efficiency was directly proportional to current density, salt concentration, and contact time, while it was inversely proportional to dye concentration. Isotherm experiments showed that the equilibrium data are best fitted to Freundlich isotherm and sips isotherm; whereas the kinetics results showed that the rate of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order with an R2 value of 98 %.</p> 2020-11-28T14:24:09-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science A marked Copy of the Manuscriptinfluence of Oxyr on Susceptibility of Planktonic and Sessile Escherichia Coli Cultures to Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime 2020-11-30T09:09:38-06:00 Zoya Samoilova Nadezhda Muzyka Galina Smirnova Oleg Oktyabrsky <p>Alternation of bacterial antioxidant defense pathways might affect susceptibility to antibiotics in dual ways.&nbsp; Using a relatively simple model based on wild-type and <em>oxyR</em> <em>Escherichia coli</em> mature biofilms, their counterpart planktonic cultures and exponentially growing planktonic cultures, we explored the role of OxyR-mediated metabolism alternations in modulation of susceptibility to antibiotics ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All three types of cultures were placed in fresh medium,1 h after antibiotics were added and incubation continued further for 2 h. Killing rates of antibiotics were determined, biofilm eradication using crystal violet assay was estimated, expression of <em>rpoS, katG, sulA </em>genes as well as HPI and HPII catalase activity were measured. Biofilms of both strains were more recalcitrant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime at all tested concentrations compared to exponentially growing planktonic cultures. In <em>oxyR</em> biofilms killing rate of ciprofloxacin was lower, and killing rate of cefotaxime was higher compared to the parental strain. Compared to biofilms, wild-type biofilm counterpart planktonic cultures showed higher tolerance to low doses of ciprofloxacin, while <em>oxyR</em> plankton demonstrated higher tolerance to cefotaxime. Higher recalcitrance of <em>oxyR</em> biofilms to ciprofloxacin may be caused by an increase in persister cells under conditions of enhanced oxidative stress and activated SOS response.</p> 2020-11-28T14:28:52-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Protection Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina Methanolic Extracts Against Hepatocellular Damage Induced by Petroleum Contaminated Diets in Male Rats 2020-11-30T09:09:18-06:00 FIDELIS IFEAKACHUKU ACHUBA Patrick Chukwuyenum Ichipi-Ifukor <p>Recently, bitter leaf (<em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>) was found to prevent petroleum – induced toxicities on the kidney whereas it potentiates the toxic effect of petroleum adulterated diet on the testes of animal model. This differential action has elicited further inquest into the role of bitter leaf extract in other organs in the midst of petroleum affronts. The hepatoprotective ability of <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>methanol extract (VAME) is the objective of this investigation.&nbsp; Administration of VAME significantly (P &lt;0.05) reduced serum liver function indices relative to the control. In addition, the activities of liver oxidative enzymes, energy metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress indices altered by crude oil adulterated diet were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) reversed near control values. Similarly, VAME injection restored the histopathological indices caused by crude oil adulterated diet. It is obvious that all the liver damage indices induced by crude oil contaminated feed were prevented by the intake of VAME, indicating the hepatoprotective ability of bitter leaf</p> 2020-11-29T10:54:31-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Antimicrobial Activity of Non-bond Colicin on Candida albicans Biofilm 2020-12-01T09:10:25-06:00 Nayarah .S. Hussain Ismail .I. Latif Hind .H. Obaid <p>Two hundred fifty mid-stream urine specimens were collected from Baqubah Teaching Hospital and Al-Batool Teaching Hospital from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI). Of these investigated urine specimens, 66 (26.4%) specimens showed positive growth culture of Gram-negative bacteria. From these, <em>Escherichia coli</em> was the most prevalent bacteria of the examined culture (41, 62.12%). Additionally, the cup assay was used to determine colicin producers while the most efficient colicin producers were estimated by the formation of larger inhibition zone. Approximately half of the investigated <em>E. coli</em> isolates (20, 49 %) was colicin producers. Colicins was extracted after induction by mitomycin-C showed a concentration of 3020 μg/ml,&nbsp; as estimated utilizing the Lowry method, while its activity was 80 U/ml. Our study results showed that colicin had significant antibiofilm activity&nbsp;(P≤ 0.05) against <em>Candida albicans</em> and the effect seemed to be concentration dependent. . However, the values of biofilm inhibition varied depending on the different tested isolates. The biofilm of isolate 5 showed the most significant inhibition (P≤ 0.05) by colicin with a value of 46%, while isolate 3 was less affected with an inhibition rate of 19% at the concentration of 2500 μl/ml.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Evaluation of Temperature, DO and BOD in Mosul Dam Lake Using Geographical Information System 2020-12-01T09:10:04-06:00 Abdulmunem Dherar Abdullah Aljoborey Hind Suhail Abdulhay <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the seasonal variations of Mosul dam lake by measuring the temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) during the period from July 2018 to April 2019. Twenty two sites were selected within the studied lake. The obtained results were integrated with the geographical information system (GIS) using spatial images to create maps utilizing Arc map software. These maps were used to demonstrate the concentrations of the investigated parameters during the study period. The results show that all parameters were within the accepted levels, indicating the good status of the lake.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Effects of Some Cyanophyta Along with the Reduced Levels of Chemical Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Wheat 2020-11-30T09:12:46-06:00 Sanaa J. Burjus Ibrahim S. Alsaadawi Francis O. Janno <p>The present work was conducted in the fields of Al-Sewarah and Kurkok stations which belong to the State Board of Agricultural Researches, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq during the growing season of 2018. The goal of the study was to test the effects of the application of cyanobacteria <em>&nbsp;</em>(<em>Anabaena circinalis </em>and<em> Nostoc commune</em>) alone or in combination with reducing the dose of chemical fertilizers (CFs), which consisted of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea (46% nitrogen), on growth, yield and yield components of wheat cv. IPA99. Application of 50%&nbsp; and 100% of CFs without cyanobacteria as well as control (without cyanobacteria and CFs) were also included in this study for comparison.</p> <p>The results indicated that the use of wheat grains coated with compost amended with cyanobacteria, grains coated with compost, and foliar spray with cyanobacteria did not change yield, yield components and most of growth parameters tested in both stations. However, application of 50% CFs along with the treatments that included either the coating of grains with compost amended with cyanobacteria or the foliar spray with cyanobacteria extract resulted in grains yield, yield components, biological yield, harvest index, and test growth parameters similar to those achieved by the recommended dose of CFs. This study suggests that this approach can be applied to reduce the input of chemical fertilizers into the field and thereby reducing the cost and pollution of agroecosystem.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Serum Level of Interleukin-35 in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection 2020-11-30T09:12:05-06:00 Raghad H. Al-azzawi Rana T. Mohsen Ali H. Ad'hiah <p>Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a new member of IL-12 family of cytokines, and its role in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been recently suggested. Accordingly, a case-control study was conducted during June - October 2018 to determine IL-35 serum level in Iraqi patients with chronic HBV infection. The results revealed that IL-35 level was significantly decreased in patients as compared to control (163 <em>vs</em>. 301 pg/ml; <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001). However, such decreased level was more pronounced in patients at the age groups &lt; 40 and 40 – 50 years (165 and 145 pg/ml, respectively) as compared to the corresponding age groups in control (482 and 234 pg/ml, respectively). In the case of gender groups, both male and female patients showed a significantly decreased level of IL-35 compared to the corresponding control groups (163 and 163 <em>vs</em>. 306 and 297 pg/ml; <em>p</em> = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively). Distributing HBV patients and control according to medians of IL-35 (≤ median and &gt; median) revealed that 67.5% of patients had ≤ median compared to 35.4% among control. Such difference was significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), with a scored odds ratio (OR) of 3.79. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the decreased level of IL-35 occupied an area under curve (AUC) of 0.710, which was highly significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001). At a cut-value of 188 pg/ml or lower, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 67.7 and 66.2%, respectively. In conclusion, these results confirmed the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of HBV</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Investigation for some Aminoglycosides Modifying Enzymes- Encoding Genes and Co-Resistance to Fluoroquinolones among Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Different Clinical Cases 2020-11-30T09:11:43-06:00 Mustafa Suhel Mustafa Rana Mujahid Abdullah <p>In this study, we investigated the prevalence of aminoglycosides modifying enzymes (AMEs)-encoding genes, including <em>aac(3′)-ΙΙ</em>,<em> ant(3′′)-Ι</em>, <em>aph(3′)-VΙ</em>, and <em>aac(6′)-Ιb-cr</em> and their potential effect on the development of resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. According to the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of 150 clinical samples, 50 (33%) isolates were identified as <em>K. pneumoniae</em>. These isolates were collected from different clinical sources, including urine (15, 30%), blood (12, 24%), sputum (9, 18%), wounds (9, 18%), and burns (5, 10%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay revealed that the resistance values of isolates were 25 (50%) to gentamicin (≥16µg/ml), 21 (42%) to amikacin (≥64 µg/ml), 15 (30%) to ciprofloxacin (≥4 µg/ml), and 11 (22%) to levofloxacin (≥8 µg/ml). Genotypic detection revealed that <em>aac(3′)-ΙΙ</em>,<em> aac(6′)-Ιb-cr</em>,<em> aph(3′)-VΙ</em>, and<em> ant(3′′)-Ι</em> were found in 47 (94%), 38 (76%), 18 (36%), and 8 (16%) of <em>K. pneumoniae </em>isolates, respectively. The co-resistance pattern for both aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was detected in 14 (28%) isolates, of these 10 (71.4%) harbored <em>aac(6′)-Ιb-cr</em>. DNA sequencing for some isolates revealed the presence of point and frameshift mutations in the studied genes. Our study findings suggest that the presence of missense and frameshift mutations may contribute to the elevated resistance to amikacin and gentamicin. The increased prevalence of AMEs-encoding genes among <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates could contribute in reducing susceptibility to amikacin and gentamicin. The co-resistance pattern for aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was highly associated with the presence of the <em>aac(6′)-Ιb-cr</em> gene.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science The Expression of Different Micrornas in Iraqi Patients with Childhood Acute Leukemia and Their Association to C/EBP-Β Serum Level 2020-11-30T09:13:28-06:00 Rowshen Hani Al Nakeeb Dalal Alrubaye <p>Leukemia is the most common cancer in children which causes death despite the high survival rate. Therefore, &nbsp;new methods are required to find a suitable therapy. A small RNA called microRNAs (miRNAs) is used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and early prognostic evaluation. Expression levels of three miRNAs from the 3' arm (<em>miR-142-3p, miR-223-3p</em> and<em> miR-146-3p</em>) were detected in serum samples from 30 acute leukemic children and from 30 healthy individuals by using qPCR. The m<em>iR-142-3p</em> and <em>miR-146-3p</em> profiles were significantly downregulated (P=0.0010 and 0.0012, respectively), while <em>miR-223</em> was found to be significantly upregulated (P= 0.0044) in the pateints. Serum level of C/EBP-β (<em>CCAAT</em>-enhancer-binding protein) was also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and showed a significantly higher level in the patients (p≤0.0001). However, this higher enhancer level is probably not the reason for the abovementioned differences in&nbsp; miRNAs expression, as indicated by the weak correlation values with the three miRNA molecules (0.5737, 0.6625 and 0.7769, respectively). In conclusion, the fold change of<em> miR-142-3p, miR-223-3p</em> and<em> miR-146-3p </em>in serum could be potentially used as an early indicator of the occurrence of acute leukemia in children.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles as Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents 2020-11-30T09:11:23-06:00 Maha Fakhry Altaee Laith A. Yaaqoob Zaid K. Kamona <p>In the present study, nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) were evaluated as an antibacterial and anticancer agent. The nanoparticles of nikel oxide were synthesized using aloe vera leaves extract and characterized with AFM (showing an average diameter of 45.11 nm), XRD and FE-SEM analyses. Three different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 µg/ml) were prepared from the synthesized NiO NPs and investigated for their potential antibacterial activity against both <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> (Gram-positive bacteria) and <em>Acinobacter baumannii </em>(Gram-negative bacteria). While cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity were measured on both MCF-7 and AMJ13 cancer cell lines by &nbsp;MTT and caspase-9 luminescence assays. The results showed that NiO NPs inhibit bacterial growth, as indicated by large inhibition zones&nbsp; against both tested bacteria, with all studied concentrations. Moreover, the results of cytotoxicity and caspase-9 activity assays were in concordance with those of &nbsp;antibacterial activity, showing high cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects against both of the studied cancer cell lines and with all the tested concentrations of NiO NPs. Both the antibacterial and anticancer activities of NiO NPs were dose-dependent.&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Design of Anti-Reflection Coatings for Application in the Infrared Region (10.6 micron) 2020-12-01T09:11:07-06:00 Mushtak Abdulmohsen Jabbar Tariq J. Alwan <p>In this research, anti-reflection coatings consisting of single and double layers were designed in the IR (8 – 14μm) region to reduce the unwanted reflections of germanium (Ge) substrate. The reflectance of Ge substrate was about 36% per surface. These values were reduced reasonably by using single and double layer anti-reflection. The used layers were promoted in their performance by changing their thickness and refractive indices. The results indicated that the suggested structures are very efficient in reducing the reflectance of the Ge substrates in the selected region. The performance of the double layer antireflection coatings of ZnSe, BaF<sub>2</sub> and BiF<sub>3</sub> on Ge substrates is presented.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Extinction Cross-Section Modeling of Metallic Nanoparticles 2020-12-01T09:11:50-06:00 Firas Faeq. K. Hussain Riyadh Mansoor Rasha A. Hussein <p>Localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are a potentially valuable property for the practical use of small size metallic particles. Exploiting the LSPs in metallic nanoparticle (NP)-based solar cells was shown to increase the efficiency of solar panels. A large extinction cross section of NPs allows for high scattering of light at the surface of the panel, which reduces the panel thickness, allowing for small size and low-cost solar cells. In this paper, the extinction cross-section of spherical nanoparticles is studied and simulated numerically. Surface plasmons were first modeled using the Drude’s model then the scattering and absorption cross-sections were derived. Commercial3D simulation software was used to model the near field distribution of the three NP structures. A spherical nanoparticle made of silver was modeled first and the field distribution inside the sphere was presented. The extinction cross-section was also calculated. Two other structures were also presented; a silica NP was first coated with silver shell then a silver NP was coated with silica shell. These structures were studied to estimate the effects of the surroundings on the extinction cross-section. The results show that the silica NP coated with a silver shell provides a high extinction cross-section and can be considered as a good choice for the LSPs-based solar cells.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Experimental Investigation for Some Properties of PMMA Denture Base Strengthened by Different Nanoadditives 2020-11-30T09:13:49-06:00 Zaynab N. Rasheed Alraziqi Hadeel Salah Mansoor <p>In dental and medical applications, poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been widely accepted due to the excellent biocompatibility and easy fabrication. Yet, some of the physical and mechanical characteristics of this compound are considered inferior. Seven groups of PMMA nano-composite samples were reported to be fabricated at laboratory temperature . These samples could be used in manufacturing the complete or partial maxillary denture base. The aim of this research is to prepare nano-composite materials which consist of PMMA as a matrix material and two different types of powder (prepared nanoparticles of SnO<sub>2</sub> and natural egg shell powder (ESP)) as strengthening materials. The selected additives were used in many cases as pure or hybrid composites, specifically with weight percentage ratios of 1 and 2 wt%. Several analytical tests, namely AFM, FTIR, XRD and SEM, were used on the prepared nanoparticles. In addition, several tests were applied to assess the mechanical behavior before and after the reinforcement, including thermal conductivity, Vickers micro-Hardness, and water absorption. The results showed that the maximum amount of energy absorption in the composites was 1% at different types of additives, while a significant increase in thermal conductivity was recorded as the SnO<sub>2</sub>NPs percentage was increased. For surface micro-hardness, an obvious trend of increase was observed with the increase in additive percentage. The highest measured values of micro-hardness (19.59VHS and 13.30VHS) were recorded for the pure composites of 2% ESP and 2% SnO<sub>2</sub>, respectively. The results of water absorption test showed that higher percentages of ESP and SnO<sub>2</sub>, separately, within the pure composite resulted in higher water absorption capacity and an increased&nbsp; value of diffusion coefficient (D).</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Petrography and Physicomechanical Characteristics of Iyuku Granite, Southwestern Nigeria 2020-12-01T09:10:46-06:00 Felix Chukwuka Ugbe <p>Petrography and physicomechanical characteristics of Iyuku granite from southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Rock and aggregate samples were obtained from five different quarry sites for thin-sectioning and physical and mechanical tests. The rock slides were subjected to petrographic analysis, while the aggregates were tested for the parameters of specific gravity (S.G), water absorption, aggregate impact value (AIV), aggregate crushing value (ACV), Los Angeles abrasion value (LAAV), and flakiness and elongation indices in accordance with the British Standards (B.S), American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) and Federal Ministry of Works Standards (FMWS). The petrographic, physical, and mechanical characteristics were described by bar charts and linear graphs. The results revealed that the rocks are of medium to coarse interlocking grains, with no evidence of weathering influences, and quartz content ranging from 17% to 35%. The aggregates showed appreciable high S.G. values, very low water absorption values and low maximum permission limits for AIV, ACV and LAAV when compared with different standards. All the aggregates are adjudged to be generally strong and durable for road construction, but those with higher quartz contents are more preferable. Significant statistical correlations were established among both physical and mechanical tests conducted.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Paleostress Analysis of the Northeastern Limb of Pulkhana Anticline /NE Iraq: Implications for Arabian Plate Tectonic Evolution 2020-11-29T11:23:57-06:00 Burkan S. Othman Zakariya Q. Jadda <p>Pulkhana anticline is located in Tuzhurmatu area, about 50 km SE of Kirkuk city. The study area forms a part of the Zagros Folded Zone which is situated in the unstable shelf of Iraq within the physiographic zone called Foothill Zone (in the middle of Hemrin- Makhul subzone). The north eastern limb of the anticline reaches to 50ᵒ and the dip of the &nbsp;south western limb reaches to 70ᵒ. The core of the structure comprises the rocks of Fat’ha Formation surrounded by rocks of Injana and Mukdadiya Formations, whereas Bai-Hasan Formation forms the slopes of the low hills surrounding the anticline. These Formations range in age from Middle Miocene to Pliocene. More than 761 readings of joint planes were collected from 20 stations within 5 traverses in the study area. The study of joint sets and system was within Injana and Mukhdadiya formations, along traverses with 3-5 stations for each travers track. The results showed the presence of two sets of tension joints (bc, ac) and five sets of shear joints, through defining the maximum stress axis (σ1) and acute angle &nbsp;dividers for these conjugate joints. It was determined that two directions of Paleostress are present in the area, which are NE-SW and NW-SE. The direction of the first major stress (NE-SW) is orthogonal with, or normal to, the fold axis in the study area, which can be considered as a horizontal component which resulted from oblique collision of Arabian and Eurasian Plates. This old compressive stress is the reason behind the formation of the tension joint (ac) and shear joints, where the sets (ac) and system are perpendicular-semi perpendicular to the bedding plane, as they were formed at an early stage of folding. Also, the ) joint was formed in five tectonic stages with different time intervals. Joints formed in different tectonic stages, in the study area, are attributed to oblique collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates and counter clockwise rotation of Arabian plate relative to Eruasian plate.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Activation and Enhancement of the Performance of Iraqi Ca-Bentonite for Using as Drilling Fluid in Iraqi Oil Fields 2020-11-29T11:26:46-06:00 Ahmed Sattar Ibrahim Mayssaa Ali Al-Bidry <p>In this study, Iraqi bentonite taken from Trefawi area/ Al-Anbar region province/ Iraq, was activated to enhance its rheological and filtration properties and increase its quality by decreasing the non-clay minerals (impurities), in order to be used in Iraqi oil companies instead of commercial bentonite. Bentonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle size distribution (PSD) before and after activation to show the effects on its mineral and chemical properties. The rheological properties of bentonite were enhanced by using different weights (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 gm) of sodium carbonate (Na₂CO₃), whereas the filtration properties were enhanced by using different weights (0.5, 1, 1.5 gm) of high viscous-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-HV) and different weights (0.5, 1, 2 gm) of low viscous-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-LV). The results showed that the rheological properties of Iraqi bentonite were enhanced and met the specifications of the American Petroleum Institute (API) when 0.7 gm of Na₂CO₃ was added. The filtration properties were also enhanced and satisfied API specification when 0.5 gm of CMC-HV and 2 gm of CMC-LV were added. Therefore, Iraqi bentonite has the potential to be used as drilling fluid in oil fields.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Microfacies Analysis and Basin Development of Hartha Formation in East Baghdad Oil field, Central Iraq 2020-11-29T11:28:48-06:00 Bilal Jasim Homadi Aiad Ali Hussien Al-Zaidy <p>The Hartha Formation is one of the important formations deposited during Late Campanian age.</p> <p>The present study deals with four boreholes (EB-53, 54, 55 and 56) within the East Baghdad oil field to diagnoses the microfacies and interpret the depositional environments.</p> <p>Six major microfacies were recognized in the succession of the Hartha Formation. Their characteristic grain types and depositional texture enabled the recognition of paleoenvironment. There are Orbitoides&nbsp; wackestone-packstone , Orbitoides - miliolid wackestone, Peloidal and Pellets - echinoderm wackestone to packstone, Peloidal wackestone to packstone, Pelletal wackestone to packstone, and Planktonic foraminifera wackestone-packstone.</p> <p>Four associations’ facies were recognized in this succession, which are shallow open marine, deep open marine, semi-resricted, and restricted. The distribution of these associations led to the recognition of three major depositional stages in the studied succession.</p> <p>The first stage is represented by the semi-restricted facies within the lower part of the Hartha Formation, which is characterized by Orbitoides - miliolid wackestone to the northwest direction and developed to shallow open marine and deep marine to the southeast direction. In the second stage, the sea level was rising to deposit the deep open marine facies represented by planktonic foraminifera wackestone-packstone microfacies above the semi-restricted facies ,where the succession became characterized by Peloidal and Pellets - echinoderm wackestone to packstone microfacies of restricted association. The third stage is represented by the continuation of sea level rise. This caused the building of carbonate ramp of Shiranish Formation above the shallow open marine of Hartha Formation with conformable surface.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Petrophysical Analysis of Well Logs for Asmari Reservoir in Abu Ghirab Oil Field, South Eastern Iraq 2020-11-29T11:59:27-06:00 Buraq Adnan Al-Baldawi <p>The present study includes the evaluation of petrophysical properties and lithological examination in two wells of Asmari Formation in Abu Ghirab oil field (AG-32 and AG-36), Missan governorate, southeastern Iraq. The petrophysical assessment was performed utilizing well logs information to characterize Asmari Formation. The well logs available, such as sonic, density, neutron, gamma ray, SP, and resistivity logs, were converted into computerized data using Neuralog programming. Using Interactive petrophysics software, the environmental corrections and reservoir parameters such as porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, volume of bulk water, etc. were analyzed and interpreted. Lithological, mineralogical, and matrix recognition studies were performed using porosity combination cross plots. Petrophysical characteristics were determined and plotted as computer processing interpretation (CPI) using Interactive Petrophysics program. Based on petrophysical properties, Asmari Reservoir in Abu Ghirab oil field is classified into three sub formations: Jeribe/ Euphrates and Kirkuk group which is divided into two zones: upper Kirkuk zone, and Middle-Lower Kirkuk zone. Interpretation of well logs of Asmari Formation indicated a commercial Asmari Formation production with medium oil evidence in some ranges of the formation, especially in the upper Kirkuk zone at well X-1. However, well X-2, especially in the lower part of Jeribe/ Euphrates and Middle-Lower Kirkuk zone indicated low to medium oil evidence. Lithology of Asmari Formation demonstrated a range from massive dolomite in Jeribe/ Euphrates zone to limestone in upper Kirkuk zone and limestone and sandstone in middle-lower Kirkuk zone, whereas mineralogy of the reservoir showed calcite and dolomite with few amounts of anhydrite.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Water Quality Index of Euphrates River Near Al- Musayyab Power Plant 2020-11-30T09:13:07-06:00 Ikhlas M. Makki Jwad K. Manii <p>This research deals with analyzing samples of water from the Euphrates River before and after (50m, 200m, 500m, and 1000m from the outflow)the power plant of AL-Musayyab. A Water Quality Index (WQI) analysis was performed, which is a helpful tool for rapid estimation of the quality of any water resource.. Water quality of&nbsp; the river was classified into good, poor, very poor, and unsuitable for drinking, based on physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total hardness (TH), and concentrations of the major ions of calcium (Ca<sup>+2</sup>), sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>), magnesium (Mg<sup>+2</sup>), potassium (K<sup>+</sup>), nitrate (NO3<sup>-2</sup>), sulphate (SO4<sup>-2</sup>), phosphate (PO4<sup>-2</sup>), and Chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>), which indicate the extent of pollution. The study shows the deterioration of water quality, with the main candidate causes of being the direct discharge of the power plant into the river and high anthropogenic activities.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Characteristics of the Oil Water Contact Zone of Nhar Umr and Mishrif Reservoirs in Kumait and Dujaila Oil Fields, Southern Iraq, Using Vp/Vs Ratio and Porosity Logs Data 2020-11-29T11:42:13-06:00 Nowfal A. Nassir Ahmed S. Al-Banna Ghazi H. Al-Sharaa <p>The detailed data of the Vp/Vs ratio and porosity logs were used to detect the Oil-Water Contact Zone (OWCZ) of Nahr Umr sandstone and Mishrif limestone reservoir formations in Kumiat (Kt) and Dujaila (Du) oil fields, southeastern Iraq. The results of OWC were confirmed using P-wave, Resistivity, and Water Saturation (Sw) logs of Kt-1 and Du-1 wells. It was found that the values of the oil-water contact zone thickness in Nahr Umr sandstone and Mishrif limestone were approximately one meter and eight meters, respectively. These results suggest that the OWCZ is possibly thicker in the carbonate rock than clastic rock formations. The thickness of OWCZ in the clastic rocks changed from one part to another, depending on several factors including mineral composition, grain size, porosity, pore shape, and fluid type.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Clay Minerals and Organic Matter from Deeply Buried Ordovician-Silurian Shale in Western Iraq: Implications for Maturity and Hydrocarbon Generation 2020-11-29T11:45:22-06:00 Ali I. Al-Juboury Mohammed A. Al-Haj Adrian Hutton Brian Jones <p>The present work is conducted on the Paleozoic (Ordovician) Khabour and the (Silurian) Akkas shales in the Akkas-1 well of western Iraq. The study is aiming to determine the implications of clay mineral transformation, organic mineral distribution and maturity of hydrocarbon generation, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in addition to organic matter concentrations. In the shale of the Khabour Formation, amorphous organic matter is common and includes various Tasmanite-type organic matter, vitrinite, inertinite, and bituminite. The main clay minerals observed include illite, chlorite, kaolinite, in addition to mixed-layer illite-smectite and rare smectite. In Silurian shale, high content of organic matter is recorded in addition to abundant vitrinite and low content of grainy organic matter (Tasmanites) and pyrite. Illite and kaolinite are commonly found in addition to chlorite and illite-smectite clay minerals. Conversion of smectite to mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) and an increase in vitrinite reflectance are commonly observed below 2500 m depth in the studied formations, which coincides with oil and gas generation. These results could be used as an indication of higher maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the deeply buried shale of the Khabour and Akkas formations in western Iraq.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science 3D Seismic Reflection Study of Al-Akhadeir Area, Southwestern Iraq 2020-11-29T12:01:43-06:00 Kamal K. Ali Gassak F. Kadhim <p>This study includes structural and stratigraphic interpretation of 3D seismic reflection data for Zubair Formation (L. Cretaceous) within Al-Akhadeir area, southwestern Iraq (Karbala Governorate). Depending on the 3D seismic reflection interpretation process, and based on the synthetic seismogram&nbsp; and well logs data, two horizons were identified and selected (top and base Zubair&nbsp; reflectors). These horizons were followed up over the entire area in order to obtain structural and stratigraphic settings. TWT, depth, and velocity maps for the base and top Zubair Formation were constructed. From the interpretation of these maps and based on the seismic section, the study concluded that there are some enclosures that represent anticline in the NW of the horizon and syncline in the NE, while the nose structure appears in the middle of the horizon and trends N-S. The horizon represents a progradational with sigmoid configuration.. Other seismic structural phenomena were recognized in this part of the area, such as flat spot, down lap, and top lap, which give indicators of potential hydrocarbon accumulations</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Strongly Hollow R - Annihilator Lifting Modules and Strongly R - Annihilator (Hollow- Lifting) Modules 2020-11-29T12:03:15-06:00 Alaa A. Elewi Omar K. Ibrahim <p>Let R be a commutative ring with unity. Let W be an R-module, for K≤F, where F is a submodule of W and K is said to be R-annihilator coessential submodule of F in W (briefly R-a-coessential) if &nbsp;(denoted by K <sup>&nbsp;</sup>F in W). An R-module W is called strongly hollow -R-annihilator -lifting module (briefly, strongly hollow-R-a-lifting), if for every submodule F of W with &nbsp;hollow, there exists a fully invariant direct summand K of W such that K <sup>&nbsp;</sup>F in W. An R - module W is called strongly R - annihilator - ( hollow - lifting ) module ( briefly strongly R - a - ( hollow - lifting ) module ), if for every submodule F of W&nbsp;with &nbsp; R - a - hollow, there exists a fully invariant direct summand K of W such that K <strong><sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong>F in W.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Some Properties of Fuzzy Anti-Inner Product Spaces 2020-11-29T12:11:03-06:00 Radhi I. M. Ali Esraa A. Hussein <p>In this paper, the definition of fuzzy anti-inner product in a linear space is introduced. Some results of fuzzy anti-inner product spaces are given, such as the relation between fuzzy inner product space and fuzzy anti-inner product. The notion of minimizing vector is introduced in fuzzy anti-inner product settings.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Non Bayesian estimation for survival and hazard function of weighted Rayleigh distribution (b) 2020-12-02T00:06:04-06:00 Saad Adnan Zain <p>In this paper, we proposed a new class of Weighted Rayleigh Distribution based on two parameters, one is scale parameter and the other is shape parameter which introduced in Rayleigh distribution. The main properties of this class are derived and investigated in . The moment method and maximum likelihood method are used to obtain estimators of parameters, survival function and hazard function. Real data sets are collected to investigate two methods which depend it in this study. A comparison was made between two methods of estimation.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science On soft P_c-connected spaces 2020-11-29T12:12:31-06:00 Qumri H. Hamko Nehmat K. Ahmed Alias B. Khalaf <p>In this paper, we define the concept of soft -connected sets and soft -connected spaces by using the notion of soft -open sets in soft topological spaces. Several properties of these concepts are investigated.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science An Efficient Method for Solving Coupled Time Fractional Nonlinear Evolution Equations with Conformable Fractional Derivatives 2020-11-30T02:39:54-06:00 Osama H. Mohammed Firas S. Ahmed <p>In this article, an efficient reliable method, which is the residual power series method (RPSM), is used in order to investigate the approximate solutions of conformable time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with conformable derivatives under initial conditions. In particular, two types of equations are considered, which are time coupled diffusion-reaction equations (CD-REs) and MKdv equations coupled with conformable fractional time derivative of order α. The attitude of RPSM and the influence of different values of α are shown graphically.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Using Affiliation Rules-based Data Mining Technique in Referral System 2020-12-02T00:39:06-06:00 Tola John Odule Ademola Olusola Adesina Adebisi Khadijat-Kubrat Abdullah Peter Ibikunle Ogunyinka <p>Referral techniques are normally employed in internet business applications. Existing frameworks prescribe things to a particular client according to client inclinations and former high evaluations. Quite a number of methods, such as cooperative filtering and content-based methodologies, dominate the architectural design of referral frameworks. Many referral schemes are domain-specific and cannot be deployed in a general-purpose setting. This study proposes a two-dimensional (User × Item)-space multimode referral scheme, having an enormous client base but few articles on offer. Additionally, the design of the referral scheme is anchored on the &nbsp;and &nbsp;articles, as expressed by a particular client, and is a combination of affiliation rules mining and the content-based method. The experiments used the dataset of MovieLens, consisting of 100,000 motion pictures appraisals on a size of 1-5, from 943 clients on 1,682 motion pictures. It utilised a five-overlap cross appraisal on a (User × Item)-rating matrix with 12 articles evaluated by a minimum of 320 clients. A total of 16 rules were generated for both &nbsp;and &nbsp;articles, at 35% minimum support and 80% confidence for the &nbsp;articles and 50% similitude for the . Experimental results showed that the anticipated appraisals in denary give a better rating than other measures of exactness. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm works well and fits on two dimensional -space with articles that are significantly fewer than users, thus making it applicable and effective in a variety of uses and scenarios as a general-purpose utility.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Survey Based Study: Classification of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease 2020-12-02T02:14:02-06:00 Shaimaa A. Al-Majeed Mohammed S. H. Al- Tamimi <p>&nbsp;Neuroimaging is a description, whether in two-dimensions (2D) or three-dimensions (3D), of the structure and functions of the brain. Neuroimaging provides a valuable diagnostic tool, in which a limited approach is used to create images of the focal sensory system by medicine professionals. For the clinical diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or Mild Cognitive Impairs (MCI), the accurate identification of patients from normal control persons (NCs) is critical. Recently, numerous researches have been undertaken on the identification of AD based on neuroimaging data, including images with radiographs and algorithms for master learning. In the previous decade, these techniques were also used slowly to differentiate AD and MCI symptoms from structure classification methods. This review focuses on neuroimaging studies conducted to detect and classify AD, through a survey based on Google Scholar content. We explore the challenges of this field and evaluate the performance of these studies along with their negative aspects.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science Color Image Compression System by using Block Categorization Based on Spatial Details and DCT Followed by Improved Entropy Encoder 2020-11-30T09:12:26-06:00 Abdallah Ibrahim Loay E. George Enas Kh. Hassan <p>In this paper, a new high-performance lossy compression technique based on DCT is proposed. The image is partitioned into blocks of a size of NxN (where N is multiple of 2), each block is categorized whether it is high frequency (uncorrelated block) or low frequency (correlated block) according to its spatial details, this done by calculating the energy of block by taking the absolute sum of differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) differences between pixels to determine the level of correlation by using a specified threshold value. The image blocks will be scanned and converted into 1D vectors using horizontal scan order. Then, 1D-DCT is applied for each vector to produce transform coefficients. The transformed coefficients will be quantized with different quantization values according to the energy of the block. Finally, an enhanced entropy encoder technique is applied to store the quantized coefficients. To test the level of compression, the quantitative measures of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and compression ratio (CR) is used to ensure the effectiveness of the suggested system. The PSNR values of the reconstructed images are taken between the intermediate range from 28dB to 40dB, the best attained compression gain on standard Lena image has been increased to be around (96.60 %). Also, the results were compared to those of the standard JPEG system utilized in the “ACDSee Ultimate 2020” software to evaluate the performance of the proposed system.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Iraqi Journal of Science