Evolution of Antibacterial Activity of Various Solvents Extracts of Annona Squamosa Fruit
This research project was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three different portions (pulp, peel, seeds) of Annona squamosa fruit using three different extraction solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone). The experiment performed by using agar well diffusion method against Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli and each organism showed different patterns of inhibition zones. Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of the pulp showed noticeable inhibitory activity against almost all the tested pathogens except K. pneumoniae who was resistant to water extract of pulp. Although, different solvents extracts of peel were found to be efficient in inhibiting the test pathogens, ethanolic extract of peel exhibited the best antibacterial activity against all the test pathogens in this study. Maximum inhibition activity was found with the peel ethanolic extract against E.coli and K. pneumonia, followed by S. aureus at crud extract concentration of 50 mg ml-1, which is comparable to the inhibition zones of the standard antibiotic (Tetracycline and Ceftriaxone 100mg ml -1) used in this study. The water extract of peel also exhibited fairly good antibacterial activity against E. coli approximately similar to the ethanolic extract. Conversely, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae showed complete resistance against water extract of peel. Regarding seeds bactericidal abilities, the water and acetone extracts of seeds showed remarkable inhibitory action against K. pneumonia followed by the water extract against E.coli. None of the test pathogens showed inhibition of growth response to seed ethanolic extract.
In conclusion, antibacterial ability of different portions of A.squamosa fruit extracts against different types of bacteria used in this experiment signified their remarkable potential for exploration and using effective antibacterial agents from natural resources to inhibit the growth of different types of pathogenic bacteria.