# Calculation the Venus orbital properties and the variation of its position

### Abstract

Venus orbit around the Sun is an ellipse inside the Earth orbit. The elements of Venus orbit and its position are affected by the gravitational force of near planets therefore the elements were determined with Julian date through ten years 2011-2020. The orbital elements used to calculate Venus distance from the Sun, the heliocentric and geocentric equatorial coordinates. From the results the orbit of Venus and its position were described and show the gravity effect of near planets on it. The results get the values and their variation through ten years for the eccentricity, semi-major axis, inclination, longitude of ascending node, argument of perihelion, mean anomaly and distance from the Sun. The variation is very small through 10 years. The values of eccentricity variation are from 0.0067678 to 0.0067630 and inclination from 3.39537 to 3.39529 and argument of perihelion from 54.634 to 54.663 and longitude of ascending node from 76.927 to 76.899 and the mean anomaly increases at a uniform rate from 0 to 360 every one orbital period which mean value equal to 224.73 days. All variations were calculated through about 16 orbital periods and they are secular variation and may show more value through many hundred years due to perturbation from the Sun and planets especially the Earth, Mercury and Jupiter. The equatorial coordinates show that Venus has apparent retrograde motion as seen from Earth and that is because the Earth and Venus orbital periods around the Sun are different as well as the Venus orbit inside the Earth orbit. The distance between the Sun and Venus is various between minimum value 0.71843 AU and maximum value 0.72822 AU.

**Iraqi Journal of Science**, [S.l.], p. 2150-2158, nov. 2018. ISSN 2312-1637. Available at: <http://scbaghdad.edu.iq/eijs/index.php/eijs/article/view/549>. Date accessed: 21 may 2019.