Weighted k-Nearest Neighbour for Image Spam Classification

  • Ahmad M. Salih Department of Computer Science, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ban N. Dhannoon Department of Computer Science, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: E-mail, Image analysis, Image spamming, Weighted K-NN

Abstract

E-mail is an efficient and reliable data exchange service. Spams are undesired e-mail messages which are randomly sent in bulk usually for commercial aims. Obfuscated image spamming is one of the new tricks to bypass text-based and Optical Character Recognition (OCR)-based spam filters. Image spam detection based on image visual features has the advantage of efficiency in terms of reducing the computational cost and improving the performance. In this paper, an image spam detection schema is presented. Suitable image processing techniques were used to capture the image features that can differentiate spam images from non-spam ones. Weighted k-nearest neighbor, which is a simple, yet powerful, machine learning algorithm, was used as a classifier. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed schema as it is evaluated over two datasets. The first dataset is a real and benchmark dataset while the other is a real-like, modern, and more challenging dataset collected from social media and many public available image spam datasets. The obtained accuracy was 99.36% and 91% on benchmark and the proposed dataset, respectively.

Published
2021-03-30
How to Cite
Ahmad M. Salih, & Ban N. Dhannoon. (2021). Weighted k-Nearest Neighbour for Image Spam Classification. Iraqi Journal of Science, 62(3), 1036-1045. https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2021.62.3.32
Section
Computer Science